Complete UPSC CSE GS Syllabus by IAS Gurukul

History

◘ Ancient History :

• Prehistoric Cultures in India:
• Periodization of Indian pre history:
• Sources of prehistory:
• Stone ageo Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC):
• Stone age Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC):
• Stone age Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC):
• Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC):
• Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC):
• Impact of Iron:
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• Pastoral and Farming Communities:
• Neolithic Phase:
• Chalcolithic Phase:
• Early Iron Phase:
• Geographical Distribution and Characteristics:
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• Indus Valley Civilization:
• Major cities:
• Town Planning:
• Harappan Trade:
• Agriculture:
• Domestication of animals:
• Crafts:
• Religion:
• Harappan Pottery:
• Weights and Measures:
• Script and Language:
• Images:
• Decline of Harappan Culture:
• Vedic Society:
• Original Home of Aryans:
• Features of Aryan Culture:
• Vedic Texts:
• Sources for Reconstructing :
• Vedic Society and Culture:
• Geography of the Rig Vedic Period:
• Geography of the later Vedic Phases:
• Economic Conditions:
• Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy:
• Social Organisation and Varna System:
• Religion and Thought:
• Pre Mauryan-Period:
• Formation of states:
• The Sixteen Mahajanapadas:
• Republics:
• Rise of urban centres:
• Haryanka dynasty:
• Shishunaga dynasty:
• Nanda dynasty:
• The Mauryan Empire:
• Chandragupta and Bindusara:
• Megasthenes:
• Asoka and His Successors:
• Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites:
• Asoka’ a Dhamma:
• Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art:
• The Arthasastra:
• Post Mauryan India (BC-200-AD 300):
• Society Evolution of Jatis:
• Sangam Texts-and Society:
• Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties:
• Foreign Dynasties:
• Commercial Contacts with the Outside World:
• Schools of Art:
• Growth of Jainism and Buddhism:
• Jainism:
• Buddhism:
• Imperial Guptas:
• Sources of Gupta Rule:
• Political history of Guptas:
• Fahien:
• Gupta Administration:
• Gupta Culture:
• Urban centres in Gupta period:
• Economic Conditions:
• Harshavardhana:
• Sources for Harsha’s Period:
• Early life of Harsha:
• Harsha’s Administration:
• Important Officials of the empire:
• Economy under Harsha:
• Society:
• Religion:
• The Southern Dynasties:
• The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225):
• The Pallavas (AD 330–796):
• The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190):
• The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323):
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• Periodization of Indian pre history:
• Sources of prehistory:
• Stone ageo Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC):
• Stone age Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC):
• Stone age Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC):
• Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC):
• Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC):
• Impact of Iron:
• Neolithic Phase:
• Chalcolithic Phase:
• Early Iron Phase:
• Geographical Distribution and Characteristics:
• Major cities:
• Town Planning:
• Harappan Trade:
• Agriculture:
• Domestication of animals:
• Crafts:
• Religion:
• Harappan Pottery:
• Weights and Measures:
• Script and Language:
• Images:
• Decline of Harappan Culture:
• Original Home of Aryans:
• Features of Aryan Culture:
• Vedic Texts:
• Sources for Reconstructing :
• Vedic Society and Culture:
• Geography of the Rig Vedic Period:
• Geography of the later Vedic Phases:
• Economic Conditions:
• Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy:
• Social Organisation and Varna System:
• Religion and Thought:
• Formation of states:
• The Sixteen Mahajanapadas:
• Republics:
• Rise of urban centres:
• Haryanka dynasty:
• Shishunaga dynasty:
• Nanda dynasty:
• Chandragupta and Bindusara:
• Megasthenes:
• Asoka and His Successors:
• Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites:
• Asoka’ a Dhamma:
• Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art:
• The Arthasastra:
• Society Evolution of Jatis:
• Sangam Texts-and Society:
• Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties:
• Foreign Dynasties:
• Commercial Contacts with the Outside World:
• Schools of Art:
• Jainism:
• Buddhism:
• Sources of Gupta Rule:
• Political history of Guptas:
• Fahien:
• Gupta Administration:
• Gupta Culture:
• Urban centres in Gupta period:
• Economic Conditions:
• Sources for Harsha’s Period:
• Early life of Harsha:
• Harsha’s Administration:
• Important Officials of the empire:
• Economy under Harsha:
• Society:
• Religion:
• The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225):
• The Pallavas (AD 330–796):
• The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190):
• The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323):
• The Timurids:
• The Timurid-Uzbek and Uzbek-Iran Conflict and Babur:
• Babur’s Advance towards India:
• Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur:
• The Battle of Panipat:
• Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat:
• Struggle with Rana Sanga:
• Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans:
• Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India:
• Humayun and the Afghans:
• Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah:
• The Gujarat Campaign:
• The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan:
• The Surs:
• Sher Shah’s Early Life:
• Social and Political Background of Bihar and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power.:
• The Sur Empire (1540-56):
• Contributions of Sher Shah:
• Conflict with the Afghans - Hemu:
• Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s:
• Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles:
• Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) - Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India:
• Relations with the Rajputs - Growth of a Composite Ruling Class:
• Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West:
• Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty:
• Structure of Government, Central and Provincial - the Vikalat, Central Ministries, Provincial Government,:
• District and Local Government:
• The Working of Government - the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System. The Mansabdari System and the Army:
• Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms:
• The Early Phase (1556-73):
• The Second Phase (1573-80) - the Ibadat Khana:
• Debates - the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox:
• Ulama - Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants:
• Third or Final Phase - Din-i-Ilahi :
• State Policies and religious toleration:
• The Deccani States upto 1595:
• Mughal Advance towards the Deccan:
• Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar:
• Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27):
• Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal:
• Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda:
• Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57):
• Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States:
• Akbar and the Uzbeks:
• The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran:
• Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign:
• Mughal - Persian Relations - the Last Phase:
• Jahangir’s Accession - his Early Difficulties:
• Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Mewar, East India and Kangra:
• Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’:
• The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan:
• Jahangir as a Ruler:
• State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century:
• Shah Jahan - Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire:
• Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System:
• War of Succession:
• Religious Policy: First Phase (1658-79):
• Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu:
• Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707):
• Territorial Consolidation and:
• Expansion of Empire - North India:
• Popular Revolts - Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs:
• Breach with Marwar and Mewar:
• Rise of the Marathas - Early Career of Shivaji :
• Treaty of Purandar - the Agra Visit:
• Shivaji’s Swaraj – Administration and Achievements:
• Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87):
• Marathas and the Deccan (1687-1707):
• Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis:
• Rural Society:
• Towns and Town Life:
• Artisans and Master-Craftsmen:
• Women:
• Servants and Slaves:
• Standard of Living:
• The Ruling Classes - Nobility, Rural Gentry:
• The Middle Strata:
• The Commercial Classes:
• Inland Trade:
• Overseas Trade - Role of Foreign Trading companies - Position of Indian merchant’s over-land Trade:
• The Mughal State and Commerce:
• Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century:
• Religion- Hindu Religion, Sikh Religion, Islam:
• Fine Arts - Architecture, Painting, Language and Literature, Music:
• Science and Technology:
• Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle:
• For Wizarat - Rajput Affairs - Marathas:
• Deccan - Accentuation of the Party Struggle:
• Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13):
• The Sayyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48):
• The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion:
• The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa:
• The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
• First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);:
• Third Battle of Panipat:
• Later Mughals:
• Regional powers in 18th Century:
• The British conquest of India:
• The wars during British conquest of India:
• British Administration before 1857:
• Indian National Movement (1858-1905):
• Early Nationalists and Swadeshi Movement:
• Government of India Act 1909:
• Home rule league movement:
• Montague’s statement – Aug 1917:
• Emergence of Gandhi – as a mass leader:
• Khilafat & non-Cooperation Movement (NCM):
• Swaraj party:
• Revolutionary Terrorism phase II (1920’s):
• Simon Commission and Nehru report:
• Civil Disobedience Movement:
• Round table conference:
• Poona pact:
• Government of India Act 1935:
• Tripuri session – 1939:
• August offer:
• Individual Satyagraha 1940-41:
• Popular struggles in the princely states:
• 2nd World War and Nationalist response:
• Rise of Communalism:
• Wavell plan:
• Cabinet Mission Plan:
• Mountbatten plan:
• Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement:
• Civil Rebellions during British:
• Tribal movements during British period:
• Peasant’s movement during British period:
• Working class Movement (1850-1900):
• Growth of communalism:
• Left and communist trends in National Movement:
• Press and education during British period:
• Role of women in Freedom Struggle:
• Governor generals of India:
• Viceroys of India:
• Important persons:
• Important newspaper/journals:
• Congress sessions:
• Constitutional provisions related to State formation:
• Factors that led to merger:
• Accession of the princely states:
• Accession of States under France and Portuguese:
• Accession of Sikkim:
• Rehabilitation of the Refugees:
• Federal crisis:
• Regional aspirations, insurgencies and areas of tension:
• Accommodation and national integration:
• Constitutional position and language policy:
• Language and regionalism:
• Recent controversy due to rise of Hindi:
• Issues & Present Status:
• Policy consolidation:
• Issues & challenges:
• Women movements:
• Government policy response and legislation:
• Governmental schemes:
• Caste practices in India:
• Ambedkar Movement:
• Constitutional provisions:
• Recent government initiatives for emancipation of Scheduled Castes:
• Issues of Manual Scavenging:
• Secularism:
• Causes of Communalism in India:
• Consequences of the communalism and social consolidation:
• Operational Inefficiency:
• Government initiatives:
• Planning in India:
• Industry:
• Service sector:
• Current challenges facing the Indian economy:
• Agriculture:
• Journey through Five Year Plans:
• Land Reforms:
• Post Green Revolution Agricultural Issues:
• Agrarian Movements:
• Achievements in Agriculture Since Independence:
• Recent Challenges:
• Industrial development since independence:
• Public sector since independence:
• Sectoral Development:
• Private Sector since Independence:
• Industrial Policy since Independence:
• Make in India:
• Impact of New Economic Policy:
• India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology:
• Institutional Framework for Science and Technology Development:
• Science and Technology in Pre- Reform Period:
• Impact of Economic Reform on the:
• Science and Technology in India: New Policy Initiatives in the S&T:
• Science and Technology in India: Agenda of the Skill Training:
• Disintegration of the Feudal System:
• Renaissance:
• Humanism:
• Art and Architecture:
• Literature:
• Science:
• Reformation etc.:
• Explorations, Discovery, Trade:
• Colonization – Rise of Nation State:
• The English Revolution:
• Causes:
• The revolution in France:
• France under Napoleon:
• Impact of revolution:
• Significance of revolution:
• Rise of the nation- state system:
• Unification of Italy:
• Unification of Germany:
• Colonialism:
• The age of Imperialism (1870-1914):
• Imperialism in Asia:
• Analysis of Colonialism:
• Foundation of American Colonies:
• The Independence of United States of America:
• The American Revolutionary War:
• What was the impact of American Revolution?:
• Political Effects of the Revolution:
• How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?:
• US Civil War:
• Impact of Civil War on USA:
• Global Impact of US Civil War:
• Impact on India:
• Major causes of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Analysis of major events of the war:
• Consequences of World War I:
• Aftermath of World War I:
• League of Nations:
• Major events in pre-revolution Russia:
• Causes:
• Course of revolution:
• Consequences:
• Aftermath of the war:
• Post-Lenin Russia:
• The Great Depression:
• The Great Depression- an economic perspective:
• Rise of Fascism in Italy:
• Rise of Nazism in Germany:
• Soviet Union (USSR):
• Foundations of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Aftermath of war:
• Analysis of the war:
• Decolonization phase:
• Democratic reforms in Middle East:
• Arab nationalism:
• Israel:
• Reasons:
• Development of Cold War (1945-1953):
• To what extent was there a thaw after 1953?:
• Nuclear Arms Race and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962):
• Global issues since 1991:
• Integration of Europe:
• European integration- a timeline:
• Rise of global Islamic terrorism:
• Rise of China:
• Capitalism (concept, types and example):
• Communism (concept, types, example):
• Relevance of capitalism in present era:
• Sculptures of Harappan Civilization:
• Sculptures of Mauryan Age:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Jain Sculptures:
• Buddhist Sculpture:
• Gupta Sculpture:
• Medieval School of Sculpture:
• Modern Indian Sculpture:
• Harappan Period:
• Mauryan Architecture:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Gupta Period:
• Temples of Khajuraho:
• Temples of Odisha:
• Temples of Gwalior:
• Temples of Gujarat:
• Temples of Rajasthan:
• Temples of Bengal:
• Temples of Assam:
• Temples of Himachal Pradesh:
• Temples of Jammu and Kashmir:
• Pallava Period:
• Chola Period:
• Pandya Temples:
• Vijayanagar Period:
• NayakaTemples:
• Temples of Kerala:
• Vesara Style:
• Hoysala Style:
• Rashtrakuta Period:
• Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate):
• Provincial Style:
• Mughal Style:
• Sikh Style of Architecture:
• Rajput Architecture:
• Salient features:
• European Influence:
• Indo-Saracenic Architecture:
• Post-Independence Period:
• Tradition of Mural Paintings in India:
• Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India:
• Paintings in the Deccan:
• Rajput School of Painting:
• Pahari School of Painting:
• Miniature Painting in South India:
• Regional Paintings:
• Modern Paintings:
• Contemporary Paintings:
• Ochre: Colored Pottery (OCP):
• Black and Red Ware (BRW):
• Painted Grey Ware (PGW):
• Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW):
• Glazed and Unglazed Pottery:
• Main Pillars of Indian Music:
• Forms of Indian Music:
• Musical Instruments:
• Institutions Related to Music:
• Concept of Dance in India:
• Concept of Ashta Nayika:
• Eight Classical Dance Forms in India:
• Folk Dances:
• Modern Dances:
• Genesis of Martial Arts:
• Forms of Traditional Martial Arts:
• Classical Sanskrit Theatre:
• Regional Theatre:
• Modern Theatre:
• Renaissance of Indian Theatre:
• String Puppets:
• Shadow Puppets:
• Rod Puppets:
• Glove puppets:
• Modern Puppetry:
• Tribal Puppetry:
• Cinema in India:
• History of Indian Cinema:
• Classification of Indian Cinema Film:
• Music of India:
• Pre-Vedic Religion:
• Hinduism:
• Buddhism:
• Jainism:
• Sikhism:
• Islam:
• Christianity:
• Zoroastrianism:
• Judaism:
• Philosophy in India:
• Bhakti Movement:
• Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation:
• Other Saints of Bhakti Movement:
• Maharashtra Dharma:
• Sufism:
• Sanskrit Literature:
• Pali Literature:
• Prakrit Literature:
• Tamil Literature:
• Telugu Literature:
• Malayalam Literature:
• Kannada Literature:
• Odia Literature:
• Assamese Literature:
• Bengali Literature:
• Gujarati Literature:
• Rajasthani Literature:
• Punjabi Literature:
• Marathi Literature:
• Hindi Literature:
• Persian Literature:
• Urdu Literature:
• Indian Handicrafts:
• Indian Universities:
• Personalities Related to Culture:
• Places of Cultural Interest:
• Fairs and Festivals in India:
• Cultural Institutions in India:
• Awards and Honors Associated with Culture:
• The Calendar:
• The Eras:
• Science and Technology in Ancient India:
• UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India:
• Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage:
• The origin of the Earth Early Theories:
• The origin of the Earth Modern Theories – BBT:
• The origin of the Earth Star Formation:
• The origin of the Earth Formation of Planets:
• The origin of the Earth Solar System:
• The Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure (5 layers):
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Lithosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Atmosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Hydrosphere:
• Geological History of the Earth:
• Earth Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians:
• Earth Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects:
• Earth Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects:
• Earth Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar:
• Earth Eclipses - Solar, Lunar:
• Origin of Life:
• Geological Time Scale:
• Interior of the Earth Direct Sources :
• Interior of the Earth Indirect Sources (EarthQuake Waves, Volcanoes):
• Interior of the Earth :
• Interior of the Earth Crust:
• Interior of the Earth Mantle:
• Interior of the Earth Core:
• Geology Minerals:
• Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust:
• Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz,:
• Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine:
• Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak:
• Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity:
• Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non-Ferrous:
• Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement:
• Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals):
• Petrology:
• Rocks & landforms:
• Rocks & Soils:
• 3 Family of Rocks:
• Igneous:
• Sedimentary:
• Metamorphic:
• Rock Cycle:
• Earthquakes:
• Waves: P, S, Body, Surface,:
• Shadow Zone:
• Types of Earthquakes:
• Effects:
• Frequency:
• Locating an Epicenter:
• Volcano:
• Types Shield:
• Types Composite:
• Types Caldera:
• Types Flood Basalt:
• Types Mid Ocean Ridge:
• Landforms (intrusive):
• Batholiths:
• Laccoliths:
• Lapoliths:
• Phacoliths:
• Sills:
• Dykes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Earth’s Surface Exogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Endogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Gradation, Degradation & Aggradation:
• Geomorphic Process:
• Endogenic Process:
• Diastrophism:
• Orogenic:
• Epeirogenic:
• Earthquakes:
• Plate movements:
• Volcanism:
• Exogenic Forces:
• Denudation Processes:
• Weathering:
• Mass movements:
• Erosion Transportation & Deposition:
• Distribution of Continents & Oceans:
• Theories:
• Continental Drift Theory:
• Alfred Wegner 1912:
• Pangea, Panthalasa:
• Laurasia, Gondwanaland:
• Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory:
• Jigsaw Fit:
• Rocks of Same age across oceans:
• Tillite:
• Placer Deposits:
• Distribution of Fossils:
• Forces of Drifting:
• Pole Fleeing Force:
• Tidal Force:
• Post Drift Studies:
• Convectional Current Theory:
• Mapping of the Ocean Floor:
• Continents – plate Tectonics:
• Lithospheric Plates:
• Major Plate:
• Minor Plates:
• Plate Boundaries:
• Divergent:
• Convergent:
• Transform:
• Rates of Plate Movements:
• Force of plate movements:
• Indian Plate:
• Movement from 71 million years ago till Today:
• Landforms and their Evolution:
• Causes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Agents:
• Geomorphic Agents Erosional or Destructional:
• Geomorphic Agents Depositional or Constructional:
• Agents and their Impacts Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents:
• Winds One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts:
• Winds Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact:
• Winds Erosional landforms:
• Pediments and Pedi plains:
• Playas:
• Deflation Hollows and Caves:
• Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks:
• Depositional Landforms Barchans:
• Depositional Landforms Seif:
• Depositional Landforms Parabolic:
• Depositional Landforms Transverse:
• Depositional Landforms Longitudinal:
• Running Water Humid Regions:
• Running Water Two Components:
• Overland Flow – Sheet:
• Linear Flow – Streams:
• Stages:
• Youth Mature Old:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Valleys:
• Rills:
• Gullies:
• Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary):
• Potholes & Plunge pools:
• Incised or entrenched meanders:
• River Terraces – paired & unpaired:
• Depositional Landforms Alluvial Fans:
• Depositional Landforms Delta:
• Depositional Landforms Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars:
• Depositional Landforms Meanders, Slip off bank,:
• Depositional Landforms Undercut bank:
• Depositional Landforms Oxbow lake:
• Depositional Landforms Braided Channels:
• Ground Water (Karst Topography) :
• Permeable Rocks:
• Percolation:
• Bedding Plains:
• Limestone and Dolomite Regions:
• Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Pools-Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements:
• Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels:
• Depositional landforms Stalactites :
• Depositional landforms Stalagmites:
• Depositional landforms Pillar Columns:
• Glaciers:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cirque of Tarn Lakes:
• Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete:
• Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Glacial Tills:
• Moraines:
• Eskers:
• Outwash Plains:
• Drumlins:
• Waves and Currents:
• High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cliffs:
• Terraces:
• Caves:
• Stacks:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Beaches and Dunes:
• Bars Barriers Spits:
• Weathering:
• Weather over Earth Materials:
• Factors:
• Geological:
• Climatic:
• Topographic:
• Vegetative:
• Major Processes:
• Chemical:
• Physical or Mechanical:
• Biological:
• Chemical – Forces Chemical Action:
• Solution:
• Carbonation:
• Hydration:
• Oxidation & Reduction:
• Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure:
• Unloading & Expansion:
• Temperature changes and Expansion:
• Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging:
• Salt Weathering:
• Biological Weathering:
• Burrowing:
• Wedging:
• Plant Roots:
• Effects of Weathering:
• Exfoliation (Flaking)– Exfoliation:
• Domes, Tors:
• Significance of Weathering:
• Soil Formation:
• Biomes and Biodiversity:
• Leaching / Enrichment:
• Mass Movements Activating causes:
• Mass Movements Forms of movement – Heave:
• Mass Movements Flow Slide:
• Mass Movements 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides:
• Landforms across the world: Rivers and lakes:
• Landforms across the world: Mountain and Peaks:
• Landforms across the world: Plateaus:
• Composition:
• Gases:
• Water Vapour:
• Dust Particles:
• Structure:
• Exosphere:
• Thermosphere:
• Mesosphere:
• Stratosphere:
• Troposphere:
• Altitude vs Temperature:
• Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature:
• Insolation:
• Aphelion and Perihelion:
• Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth:
• Day Season Year:
• Rotation on Axis, Angle of:
• Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day:
• Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.:
• Heat Balance:
• Heating and cooling of atmosphere:
• Conduction:
• Convection:
• Advection:
• Terrestrial Radiation:
• Heat Budget of the Planet Earth:
• Macro Budget:
• Albedo:
• Shortwave Radiation:
• Long wave Earth Radiation:
• Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface:
• Temperature:
• Factors controlling T distribution:
• Distribution of T Month of January-July:
• Range of T Month of January-July:
• Inversion of Temperature:
• Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems:
• Atmospheric Pressure:
• Vertical variation of pressure:
• Horizontal distribution of pressure:
• World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure:
• Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the:
• WIND:
• Pressure Gradient Force:
• Frictional Force:
• Coriolis Force:
• Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation):
• General Circulation of the Atmosphere Pattern of Planetary Winds:
• Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating:
• Emergence of Pressure Belts:
• Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun:
• Distribution of continents & Oceans:
• Rotation of the Earth:
• Circulation:
• Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell:
• Seasonal Wind:
• Local Wind:
• Land and Sea Breezes:
• Mountain and Valley winds:
• AIR MASS – fronts:
• ExtraTropical Cyclone:
• Thunderstorms:
• Tornadoes:
• Water in the Atmosphere:
• Water Vapour:
• Precipitation:
• Humidity – Absolute and Relative:
• Saturation – Dew Point:
• Evaporation and Condensation:
• Dew:
• Frost:
• Fog & Mist:
• Clouds:
• Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus:
• High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus:
• Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus:
• Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus:
• Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus:
• Precipitation:
• Rainfall Snowfall Sleet Hail Hailstones:
• Types of Rainfall:
• Conventional:
• Orographic:
• Cyclonic:
• World Distribution of Rainfall:
• World Climate:
• The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate:
• The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical:
• Marine Climates:
• The Savanna or Sudan Climate:
• The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates:
• The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate:
• The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate:
• The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate:
• The Arctic or Polar Climate:
• Water on the Surface of the Earth Hydrological Cycle:
• Component:
• Processes:
• Oceans:
• Oceans Relief of the Ocean floor:
• Oceans 4 divisions of the ocean floor:
• Continental Shelf:
• Continental Slope:
• Deep sea plain:
• Oceanic deep and Trenches:
• Minor relief features:
• Mid oceanic ridges:
• Seamount:
• Submarine canyons:
• Guy outs:
• Atoll:
• Temperature of the Ocean Water:
• Vertical:
• Spatial:
• Factors affecting Temperature Distribution:
• Latitude:
• Unequal distribution of land & Water :
• Prevailing wind:
• Ocean Currents:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution Thermocline:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution 3 layers:
• Salinity of the Ocean Water:
• Factors affecting salinity:
• Evaporation and precipitation:
• Fresh water flow from rivers:
• Wing:
• Ocean currents:
• Horizontals distribution of salinity:
• Vertical Distribution of salinity:
• Density of Ocean Waters:
• Movements of ocean Water:
• Factors influencing Movement:
• Temperature:
• Salinity:
• Density:
• Sun Moon winds:
• Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents:
• Waves:
• Motion of waves and water molecules:
• Characteristics Of WAVE:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Crest and Trough:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Height:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Amplitude:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Period:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Length:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Speed:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Frequency:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Tides:
• Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides:
• Tidal currents:
• Types of Tides:
• Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed:
• Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides:
• Importance of Tides:
• Ocean Currents:
• Influenced by 2 forces:
• Primary Force that initiates the movement:
• Heating of solar energy:
• Wind:
• Gravity:
• Coriolis force:
• Secondary force that influence the currents to flow:
• Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots:
• Types of ocean currents Surface currents & Deep-water currents based on Depth:
• Types of ocean currents Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature:
• Major Ocean currents of the World:
• Effects of Ocean Currents:
• Underground water resource:
• Surface water resources:
• Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources by ma:
• Oceanic water resources: Main features of ocean:
• Utilization of oceans by man:
• Water consumption patterns:
• Water pollution:
• Conservation of water resources:
• Techniques of water conservation:
• Soil Characteristics:
• Soil Factors Responsible for Soil Formation:
• Soil Stages of Soil Formation:
• Soil Forming Processes:
• Soil Profiles and Horizons:
• Soil Classification:
• Soil Erosion and Conservation:
• Vegetation resources Types of natural vegetation:
• Vegetation resources Forests:
• Vegetation resources Significance of forests:
• Economic significance, Ecological significance:
• Cultural significance:
• Factors of forest development:
• Extent of forest cover:
• Classification of forests Grasslands:
• Classification of forests Desert vegetation:
• Classification of forests Tundra Vegetation:
• Economic utilization of forests:
• Deforestation in tropical forests:
• Deforestation in temperate forests:
• Deforestation Rate and extent of deforestation:
• Deforestation Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation:
• Deforestation Indirect deforestation:
• Deforestation Underlying causes of deforestation:
• Conservation of forests Forest conservation strategies:
• Conservation of forests Reforestation:
• Conservation of forests Monoculture plantation:
• Conservation of forests Afforestation:
• Types of forestry Social forestry:
• Types of forestry Agroforestry:
• Concept of Human Resources:
• Population Distribution:
• Factors of population distribution Physical Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Socio Cultural Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Demographic Factors:
• World Population Distribution Ecumene:
• World Population Distribution Non-ecumene:
• Continent wise distribution of Population:
• Density of population:
• Pattern of Population density:
• Population Increase (Growth) in the World:
• Causes of Rapid Increase in Population:
• Present Trend:
• Future Projection:
• Determinants of Population Growth:
• Natural Increase:
• Characteristic of Population Age Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Population Pyramids:
• Characteristic of Population Sex Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Literacy:
• Theories of population growth Malthusian theory:
• Theories of population growth Marxian theory:
• Theories of population growth Demographic transition theory:
• Optimum population Over-population:
• Optimum population Under-population:
• Population problems Population problems of developing countries:
• Population problems Population problems of developed countries:
• Population problems Population dilemma of Europe:
• Population Policies: of China, of India:
• Various types of rural settlements:
• Relationship between house types with relief, climate and building materials:
• Basic Feature and Pattern of India’s Urbanization:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Rural Urban Migration:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Emergence of Slums:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Transport:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Waste Disposal:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Electronic Waste:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Poverty:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Bill, 2013:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Inclusive Cities/Smart cities:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Recent government programmes::
• Migration:
• Displacement:
• Importance of the Rehabilitation Policy:
• Urban settlements: types:
• Urbanization process in India.:
• Morphology of urban settlements:
• Town planning and patterns of rural settlement:
• Settlement types of the world:
• Migration: Push factors and pull factors:
• Emigration during colonial, post-independent and post-liberalisation period:
• Internal versus world migration:
• Functional classification of cities:
• Difference between boundaries and frontiers, their classification:
• Rural urban fringe characteristics, advantages, problems:
• National urbanization policy:
• Principles of urban planning:
• Land cover transformation:
• Factors affecting rural settlements, their types and patterns:
• Cities – hierarchical classification, morphological classification:
• Literacy:
• Sex ratio:
• Family Planning:
• Old Age:
• Age Structure:
• Density:
• Population growth:
• Census terminology:
• Land resource:
• Land-use:
• Land capability classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Basic terms related to Agriculture:
• Performance of the agriculture sector:
• Types of farming in India:
• Dry zone farming:
• Organic farming:
• Cropping seasons in India:
• Cropping Pattern in India:
• Agriculture regionalization:
• Infrastructure factors: Seeds;:
• Fertilizers; Irrigation:
• Land use pattern in India:
• Institutional Factors as land reform:
• Horticulture sector in India:
• Agricultural revolutions:
• Agricultural labourers:
• Price Policy for Agriculture:
• Agricultural marketing:
• Agricultural Insurance:
• Agricultural Census:
• Major schemes in agricultural sector:
• National Policy for farmers:
• Impact of climate change on agriculture:
• What is sustainable agriculture?:
• Use of IT in agriculture:
• Agriculture Issues and Challenges:
• Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth:
• Wheat:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Types of cultivation:
• Production patternInternational trade:
• Rice:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Methods of cultivation:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Maize (Corn):
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Barley:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Oats:
• Rye:
• Beverages:
• Tea:
• Condition of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Coffee:
• Types of coffee:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Cocoa:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Tobacco:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Fibre Crops:
• Cotton:
• Varieties of cotton:
• Cotton Conditions of growth:
• Cotton Production pattern:
• Cotton International trade:
• Jute:
• Jute Conditions of growth:
• Jute Production pattern:
• Jute International trade:
• Jute Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp:
• Jute Abaca, Henequen:
• Jute Sisal:
• Raw Silk:
• Raw Silk Production pattern:
• Raw Silk International trade:
• Natural Rubber:
• Natural Rubber Other sources of rubber:
• Natural Rubber Plantations in South-east Asia:
• Natural Rubber Production pattern:
• Natural Rubber International trade:
• Sugarcane:
• Sugarcane Conditions of growth:
• Sugarcane Production pattern:
• Sugarcane International trade:
• Sugarcane Sugar Beet - Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• Sugar industry:
• Sugar consumption:
• International trade:
• Types of minerals: Metallic minerals:
• Non-metallic mineral:
• Distribution of minerals and mining regions:
• Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore:
• Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous:
• Manganese:
• Chromium:
• Nickel:
• Tungsten:
• Antimony:
• Copper:
• Bauxite and Aluminium:
• Zinc; Lead:
• Tin:
• Precious metals: Gold:
• Silver:
• Platinum:
• Mineral chemicals:
• Mineral chemicals Mica:
• Mineral chemicals Potash:
• Mineral chemicals Phosphate:
• Mineral chemicals Nitrates:
• Mineral chemicals Sulphur:
• Conservation of mineral resources:
• Classification of energy:
• Production of conventional energy:
• General trends of energy production and consumption:
• Reserves and sources of energy:
• Coal Nature and origin of coal:
• Constituents and kinds of coal:
• Coal fields and coal production:
• By products of coal:
• Conservation of Coal Petroleum:
• Petroleum:
• Nature and properties of petroleum:
• Petroleum Origin and recovery:
• Petroleum Exploration:
• Petroleum refining:
• Petroleum reserves:
• Producing areas:
• Consumption of petroleum:
• International trade:
• OPEC and its role in oil trade:
• Natural gas: Reserves and Production:
• Hydro-electricity:
• Advantages of hydro-electricity:
• Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity:
• Distribution of potential hydro-power:
• Hydro-electric power generation:
• Atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Atomic: source minerals: Uranium:
• World distribution of uranium:
• Production of uranium:
• Thorium:
• Production of atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Nuclear energy: the energy of future:
• Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy:
• Solar energy:
• Wind energy:
• Geothermal power:
• Tidal energy:
• Wave energy:
• Biomass energy:
• Alternate Energy Sources:
• Hydrogen as a Fuel for Future or Hydrogen as an Alternative Energy Source:
• Microbial Fuel Cell:
• Energy Context with Respect to Indian Scenario:
• Energy Plantation:
• Energy crisis:
• Industrial development:
• Iron and Steel Industry :
• Process of iron and steel production:
• Location of iron and steel industry:
• Early localization:
• Development of iron manufacture:
• Distribution of iron and steel industry:
• Global steel production:
• International trade:
• Growth potential of the steel industry:
• Textile Industry:
• Cotton textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Recent trends in localization:
• Distribution and production of cotton textiles:
• Woolen textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture:
• Silk textile manufacturing:
• Synthetic (artificial) silk industry::
• Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics.:
• Engineering Industries:
• Machine tools and machines: Areas of production:
• Industrial machinery: Textile machinery:
• Other industrial machinery:
• Agricultural machinery:
• Manufacturing of transport equipment:
• Automobile industry:
• Railway car and locomotive industry:
• Shipbuilding:
• Recent trends:
• Aircrafts industry:
• Chemical Industry:
• Classes of chemicals: Branches of chemical industry:
• Heavy chemical industry:
• Rise Production of acids and alk:
• Production of acids and alkalis:
• Rise of chemical industry:
• Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers:
• Phosphate fertilizers:
• Potash fertilizers:
• Explosives:
• Glass industry: Production of glass:
• Agro-industries:
• Synthetic rubber industry:
• Pulp and paper industry: Essential:
• conditions for pulp production:
• Production of paper and paper board:
• Newsprint:
• International trade:
• Salient features of pulp and paper industry:
• Cement industry:
• Distribution of cement industry:
• Recent trends: Main global competitors:
• Petroleum refining industry: Localization:
• Site selection of petroleum refineries:
• History of oil refineries:
• World pattern of oil refining:
• Petroleum products:
• Industrial Regions:
• Characteristics of industrial regions:
• Delimitation of an industrial region:
• Principal industrial regions of the world:
• Industrial regions of Anglo America-USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR:
• Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns:
• Features of Indian Society:
• Changes within Indian society and their repercussions:
• Causes of changes:
• Indian society today:
• What is diversity?:
• Types of diversities in India:
• Can diversity be equated with difference?:
• The unity in diversity- a reality or a chimera:
• Some examples:
• Manner of reconciliation:
• Women’s organizations in Indian history:
• Types of women’s organizations:
• Level of penetration:
• Women’s organization – a ray of hope:
• Few case studies:
• Problems faced by women’s organizations:
• Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same:
• Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institutions:
• Poverty:
• Concept of development:
• Sen vs Bhagwati model:
• Crisis of development:
• Certain case studies:
• Government’s initiatives and the five year plans:
• Role of civil society organizations:
• What is the meaning of globalization?:
• Kinds of impact of globalization–economic, political, developmental and socio-cultural:
• Is the impact solely positive or negative:
• Meaning and concept of social empowerment:
• Why do we need social empowerment?:
• Specific sections for whom social empowerment is the life blood:
• Social empowerment through the five year plans:
• Government’s initiatives for empowerment:
• Empowerment in reality and India’s experience:
• Other approaches /players/tools for social empowerment and some case studies on the same:
• Meaning and concept of communalism:
• Historicity of communalism:
• Recent incidents:
• Role of third parties in inciting/perpetrating communalism:
• Communalism under the law:
• Can communalism be eradicated from the Indian society completely?:
• Meaning and concept of secularism:
• Secularism through the vantage point of Indian Constitution:
• Comparisons of models Indian & Western:
• Gandhi ji on religion:
• Indian philosophy on secularism:
• Threats on the secular spirit:
• Is the Indian democracy mature enough to handle the gravity of secularism?:
• Meaning and concept of regionalism:
• Theories on regionalism:
• Regionalism in its various manifestations:
• Role of various players:
• Recent incidents causing a wave of flurry:
• Possible ways to tackle the same:
• Constitutional arrangement:
• Women welfare:
• Child welfare:
• SC/ST welfare:
• OBC welfare:
• Minorities welfare:
• Old age welfare:
• Legislations:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Education structure in India:
• Primary, secondary and higher education:
• Initiatives taken by GOI in education:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Recommendations of committees:
• Future prospects in education sector:
• Skill development:
• Health indicators:
• Health structure in India:
• Private and Public health structure:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• NITI Aayog Report:
• Economic development and human development:
• SDGs and India:
• Poverty definition by different committees:
• Poverty data in India:
• Causes of poverty:
• Poverty and unemployment:
• Poverty and social conflict:
• Impact of LPG on poverty:
• Linkage between poverty and development:
• Rural poverty:
• Urban poverty:
• Feminization of poverty:
• Poverty alleviation measures:
• Problems in implementation of Poverty alleviation programmes:
• Poverty and Hunger:
• Food security programmes and issues:
• Hunger and health:
• Impact of hunger and poverty on economic development of the nation:
• 5th Schedule Areas:
• 6th Schedule Areas:
• Composition of autonomous councils:
• Role and functions of councils:
• Role of Governor with respect to tribal areas:
• Tribal sub plan:
• Controversy related to Poverty Data Estimation:
• Start Up India Scheme:
• Stand up India Scheme:
• National Student Startup Policy:
• National Skill Development Mission:
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana:
• Skill Development Initiative Scheme:
• Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU):
• Atal Innovation Mission:
• Social Security:
• Atal Pension Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana:
• Minorities:
• Nai Roshni Scheme:
• USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development):
• Nai Manzil Scheme:
• Women and Child Development:
• Beti Bachao Beti Padhao:
• Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana:
• Digital Gudda Guddi Board:
• Sabla:
• Ujjawala Scheme:
• Janani Suraksha Yojana:
• Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram:
• SC/ST:
• Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Disability:
• Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan):
• National Health Mission:
• National Ayush Mission:
• Swasthya Rakshan Program:
• Jan Aushadhi Scheme:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• NFHS-4 survey:
• Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat:
• Mid-Day Meal Scheme:
• Ishan Uday:
• GIAN (Global Initiative of Academic Networks):
• Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan:
• SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active - Learning for Young Aspiring Minds):
• Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan:
• Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission:
• Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana:
• Swachch Bharat Abhiyan:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban:
• Housing for all by 2022:
• Smart Cities Mission:
• Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana:
• Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation):
• Jeevan Praman:
• Digilocker:
• Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network):
• INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit:
• for Inspired Research):
• SAKAAR:
• Digital India:
• Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project):
• Ganga Gram Yojana:
• Jal Kranti Abhiyan:
• Khelo India:
• One Rank One Pension Scheme:
• PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation):
• Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF):
• Measurement criteria:
• Government initiatives for inclusive growth:
• Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/ Sanitations:
• Sustainable Development:
• Rural development and poverty alleviation:
• Review of the Existing Programmes:
• Development Administration:
• Panchayati Raj:
• Agriculture and Rural Development:
• The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act:
• ‘Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016’:
• ‘Child Labor (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016’:
• Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016:
• Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act:
• Mental Health Care Bill, 2013:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty:
• HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill-2014 - Amendments:
• Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC Widens Ambit:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefits:
• Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016:
• The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act:
• Secularism and Anti-Conversion:
• Regionalism: Demand for smaller states:
• Repercussions of making Hindi compulsory:
• Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011:
• Maternity benefit Amendment Bill:
• Altruistic surrogacy in India:
• Status of widows:
• Acid Attacks:
• SC banned Women Sterilization in India:
• Issue of Sex ratio:
• Issue of Triple Talaq:
• Female Foeticide and Infanticide:
• Reservation for Women in Legislature:
• Women in Combat Duties:
• Women in panchayats:
• Women participation in Economy:
• Challenges faced by Working Women:
• Draft National Policy for Women, 2016:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses:
• Issue of malnutrition in India:
• Amendments proposed in Child Labour Act:
• Plight of street children:
• Adoption Regulations, 2017:
• National Child Policy:
• Out of school children: Issues and steps needed:
• Cradle Baby Scheme:
• Juvenile Justice System:
• Child Marriages in India:
• Draft bill on child abduction:
• National Action Plan for Children, 2016:
• Report on the Protection of Children (Inter-Country Removal and Retention) Bill, 2016:
• Social stigma attached with HIV:
• Issues related to Transgender and Transgender Persons Bill, 2015:
• Euthanasia Issue: An Analysis:
• Right to Privacy and Aadhaar:
• Mental Health Care Bill:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2016:
• Challenge of ageing with dignity:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act:
• Maintenance of Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act:
• Manual Scavenging:
• Mob lynching and Rule of Law:
• Issue related to Undertrials:
• Issues related to Sanitation:
• Sharp reality of displacement:
• Moral policing:
• Income inequality in India:
• Forest Rights Act: Analysis:
• Issue of poor infrastructure in schools:
• No Detention Policy:
• New Policy on Education:
• Lancet Report on Healthcare spending:
• New Health Policy, 2017:
• Technology Adaptation in Health Care:
• Food Fortification:
• Progress Panchayat initiative:
• National Sex Offender Registry:
• Slum Redevelopment:
• Issue of farmer suicide in India:
• Anthropological Survey of India:
• National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes:
• T.V.S.N. Prasad Report on Pellet Guns:
• Uniform Civil Code:
• Concept of Open Prison:
• Importance of Constitution:
• Historical evolution of the Constitution:
• Constituent Assembly:
• Objectives of the Constitution:
• Salient features of Indian Constitution:
• Unitary features:
• Federal features:
• Parliamentary form of government:
• Presidential form of government:
• Parliamentary vs. Presidential system of government:
• Preamble Basic features:
• Preamble Value premises of constitution:
• Preamble Terminologies as::
• Democratic:
• Sovereign:
• Socialist:
• Secular:
• Republic:
• Justice:
• Equality:
• Liberty:
• Fraternity:
• Integrity:
• Basic constitutional features:
• Methodology of getting citizenship:
• Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India:
• Concept of dual citizenship:
• Citizenship provisions in J&K:
• Special privileges enjoyed by citizens in India:
• Significance of Fundamental Rights:
• Right to Equality:
• Right to Freedom:
• Right against Exploitation:
• Right to Freedom of Religion:
• Cultural and Educational Rights:
• Right to Constitutional Remedies:
• Difference between procedure established by law and due process of law:
• Writs and their uses:
• Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights:
• Basic features:
• Directives:
• Economic and Social DPSP:
• Gandhian DPSP:
• Administrative DPSP:
• DPSP related to International Peace:
• Implementation of DPSP:
• Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy Controversy:
• Features:
• Link of Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties:
• Process of law making in India:
• Role of Constitutional and extra constitutional bodies in law making:
• Basic structure: How it evolves?:
• Different types of majorities required in Indian Constitution:
• DPSP Fundamental Rights:
• Doctrines Terminologies:
• Features in American and UK Constitution:
• Checks and balances provisions in Indian Constitution:
• Judicial Review:
• Concept of Separation of Powers:
• It should cover Comparison of USA, UK, India and neighbours:
• State Reorganization Commission (brief):
• Components of Indian territory:
• Process of formation of new states:
• Zonal Councils:
• Union territories:
• Special provisions for states:
• Regulating functions of Government:
• Development functions of government:
• Service providing functions of government:
• Problems in implementation:
• Recommendations for improvement:
• Interrelationship between union, state and local government in implementation of roles:
• Constitutional provisions related to financial devolution:
• Issues of financial devolution:
• Administrative relations:
• Legislative relations:
• Financial relations:
• Misuse of Article 356:
• Issues related to concurrent list:
• Issues related to appointment of Governor:
• Issues related to state formation:
• Poor devolution of finances:
• Reserving bill for Presidential approval:
• Central sponsored schemes and issues:
• Special package for different states:
• Issues between Centre and State after 1990 reforms:
• Foreign policy and Centre and State Relations:
• Importance of President:
• Qualification:
• Election procedure:
• Advantages and disadvantages of single transferable form of voting:
• Presidents’ Term of Office and emoluments:
• Executive Powers:
• Legislative Powers:
• Emergency Powers:
• Financial Powers:
• Miscellaneous powers:
• Judicial powers:
• Presidents Impeachment:
• President as nominal head:
• Issues Ordinance making power:
• Issues Passage of bills:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Pardon power:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Coalition government:
• Office of the Vice-President:
• Functions:
• Appointment of PM:
• Functions of PM:
• Role of PM with respect to CoM:
• Role of PM with respect to President:
• Role of PM with respect to Lok Sabha:
• Role of PM with respect to Political Party:
• Role of PM with respect to Coalition Government:
• Division of CoM:
• Role of CoM:
• Role of Cabinet:
• Responsibilities of the Ministers:
• Qualification:
• Functions:
• Powers with respect to parliament:
• Composition of Rajya Sabha:
• Composition of Lok Sabha:
• Composition of Legislative assembly and Legislative Council:
• Qualification and disqualification of MPs and MLAs:
• Vacation of seats:
• Sessions of parliament:
• Law making procedure:
• Officers of Parliament and state legislature:
• Parliament Proceedings:
• Motions and resolutions in Parliament:
• Powers and Privileges:
• Financial proceedings:
• Comparison of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:
• Comparison of Legislative assembly and council:
• Women reservation in Parliament and issues:
• Lowering of Parliamentary powers:
• Parliamentary committees and their working:
• Judicial activism and Parliament:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Supreme Court Composition:
• Independence of Supreme Court:
• Jurisdiction of SC:
• Judicial Review:
• High Court Composition:
• High Court Terms and removal:
• High Court Jurisdiction:
• High Court Other powers:
• High Court Lower judiciary:
• High Court Appointment:
• High Court Powers:
• The role of the Supreme Court of India as guardian of the Constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights:
• Judicial Review:
• PIL:
• Judicial Activism:
• Judiciary appointment:
• Collegiums System:
• NJAC Controversy:
• National Court of Appeal:
• Judicial Accountability:
• Issues of corruption in judiciary:
• Functioning of Ministries:
• Central Secretariat:
• Cabinet Secretary:
• Field organizations:
• Reforms needed:
• International methodology:
• Provisions of 73rd AA and 74th AA:
• Role and functions of different tiers:
• Municipal Corporations:
• Municipal Councils:
• Nagar Panchayats:
• The steps taken towards women’s empowerment:
• Role of State Election commission:
• Role of State Finance Commission:
• Smart City Mission & Municipal Governance:
• What is Dispute redressal mechanism?:
• Need of Dispute redressal mechanisms:
• Administrative tribunal and issues:
• Fast Track Courts and issues:
• Gram Nyayalayas and issues:
• Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and issues:
• Family Courts and issues:
• Lok Adalat and issues:
• NALSA and issues:
• Dispute redressal for Weaker section:
• Arbitration Mechanism:
• International Arbitral Centre:
• Commercial Court:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• Role of CAG in good governance:
• Appointment, term of office, qualification, etc:
• Powers:
• Discretionary powers:
• Ordinance making power:
• Appointment:
• Powers and responsibilities:
• Relationship between the Governor and the Chief Minister:
• Relationship between CoM and the Chief Minister:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• The composition of Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad:
• Qualifications of the Members of Legislature:
• Powers and Functions of State Legislature:
• Relationship between both the Houses:
• Officers of State Legislature:
• Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members:
• Legislative procedure:
• Governor’s assent to Bills:
• Procedure in Financial Matters/Budget:
• Growth and Development:
• Human Development and Human Capital Formation:
• Equality (interpersonal and interregional) and social justice:
• • Unity and Integrity:
• Trust between state and citizens:
• What is effective implementation? Best outcomes in view of given time, resources and constraints:
• Analysis of different important schemes:
• Good Governance-Role of institutions, bureaucrats and other stakeholders:
• Transparency and accountability:
• Optimum use of resources- Right targeting, plugging leakages and wasteful expenditure, use of available knowledge, research and innovation.:
• Monitoring and evaluation- Outcome budget, zero base budgeting, input output analysis, cost-benefit analysis:
• Setting up institutions and regulatory norms task forces, steering committees and review committees.:
• Difference between Growth and Development:
• Main Constraints of Development:
• Main Stakeholders in Development Process:
• Self Help Groups Meaning:
• Self Help Groups Importance:
• Self Help Groups Objectives:
• Self Help Groups Institutional Structure and Organization:
• Self Help Groups Funding:
• Micro Finance Meaning and importance:
• Micro Finance Objectives:
• Micro Finance Structure and Organization:
• Micro Finance Advantages:
• Micro Finance Micro Finance in India:
• Non-Government Organizations:
• What are NGOs?:
• Difference between Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs):
• United Nations Criteria for INGO and NGO:
• NGOs and Development Projects:
• NGOs and Community Development:
• NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation:
• NGOs involved in disaster management:
• NGOs and advocacy:
• Citizen Centric Governance:
• Features of Good Governance:
• Legislative accountability:
• Administrative accountability:
• Judicial accountability:
• Ombudsman:
• Whistleblowers Concept:
• Anti Corruption Machinery:
• Role of Citizens:
• Role of Media:
• Social Audit:
• Systematic Reforms:
• Introduction:
• Applications:
• Models:
• Successes:
• Limitations:
• Future prospects:
• Citizens Charters:
• Models:
• Features:
• CC in India:
• Issues in CC Implementation:
• Reform needed:
• Concept of Civil Services:
• Need for Civil Services:
• Different Role of Civil Services:
• Law making:
• Policy formulation:
• Policy implementation:
• Policy evaluation:
• Civil services as protector of democracy:
• To protect minorities (religious and linguistic) :
• To promote Inclusive and sustainable growth:
• What are pressure groups?:
• Types:
• The significance of pressure groups in India:
• Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party:
• Evaluation of pressure groups role:
• Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment) - composition of CAG:
• Functions and responsibilities of CAG:
• Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment) - composition of ECI:
• Functions and responsibilities of ECI:
• Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament):
• Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC:
• Functions and responsibilities of UPSC:
• Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment) - composition of Finance commission:
• Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission:
• Powers and privileges of the Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• National Commission for SCs and STs.:
• SEBI:
• CVC:
• CBI:
• Planning Commission:
• NDC:
• PMO:
• Zonal Council:
• TRAI:
• IRDA:
• National Human Rights Commission:
• State Human Rights Commission:
• Central Information Commission:
• State Information Commission:
• National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission:
• Tribunal:
• Medical Council Of India:
• Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority:
• Biodiversity Authority Of India:
• Press Council Of India:
• Forward Markets Commission:
• Inland Waterways Authority Of India RBI:
• Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950:
• Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951:
• Electoral reforms:
• Criminalization of politics:
• Negative or neutral voting:
• State funding of Elections:
• Irregularities in polling:
• Political parties in India:
• Party reforms:
• Problems in the working of parties :
• Casteism and politics:
• Reforms in Party system in India:
• Strengthening of Anti-defection measures:
• Types of pressure groups:
• Role of pressure group in developing countries:
• Functions of pressure groups in India:
• Pressure groups and Methods:
• Pressure groups and Democracy:
• Criticism of pressure groups:
• Background of Relation:
• Political:
• Economic:
• The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation:
• Social:
• Psychological:
• The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi:
• Recommendations to Improve Relations:
• Economy: A Broad Overview:
• India, Bhutan and China: issues:
• The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister:
• A Long History of Bilateral Relations:
• The India-Afghanistan Development Partnership:
• Strategic factors undergirding India’s Partnership with Afghanistan:
• Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal:
• Options for India:
• Development Partnership:
• India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy:
• Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis:
• Geostrategic Importance of Maldives:
• Development Cooperation:
• Security Risks:
• Commercial Relations:
• Developmental Cooperation:
• Fishermen Issue:
• Relation through ages:
• Recent change in policy:
• China Role:
• Major Crisis:
• Water Dispute:
• Current Internal Scenario:
• Impact on India:
• Developments in Last One Year:
• Economic Relation:
• China India Water Related Issue:
• “String of Pearls Strategy”:
• China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India:
• Main Disputes:
• Resources as a Driver of Competition:
• Attempts for Resolution:
• India and South China Dispute:
• The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift:
• South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust:
• Piracy off the coast of Somalia:
• Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism:
• Energy Routes:
• Fisheries and Livelihood Issues:
• Environmental Security:
• Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace:
• India and Asian Nations relations:
• India-Turkmenistan:
• India-Kazakhstan:
• India Tajikistan:
• China And Central Asia:
• International North-South Transport Corridor:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
• India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation:
• Deal on Uranium Supply:
• Visit:
• Political and economic relation:
• Oil Economic Relation:
• Iran Nuclear Deal and India:
• India Iran Relations:
• US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran:
• Israel and Palestine:
• India – Israel Relations:
• Areas of Cooperation:
• Challenges in Relations:
• Zones of Activity:
• Regional Groupings:
• Geopolitics of Asia Pacific:
• Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations:
• India-ASEAN Security Co-operation:
• Economy Centric Relationship:
• Contemporary Perspective:
• India South Korea Relations:
• Economic Partnership in Recent Years:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Strategic Cooperation:
• Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation:
• China’s Response:
• India’s Response:
• Historical Connections:
• Gandhi’s Role:
• Nehru’s Role:
• Strengthening of Ties:
• South-south Engagement:
• Current Dynamics:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Human resources development and capacity building:
• Energy Cooperation:
• Military Security Co-operation:
• Trade Policy under Modi:
• Afro-Indian Trade:
• Indian investment in Africa:
• African investment in India:
• Development cooperation and assistance:
• Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora:
• Economic Relationship:
• Issue of Nuclear Cooperation:
• India-Russia Bilateral Relationship:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organization:
• Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia:
• Strategic Partnership:
• Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France:
• Indian-Germany Economic Relations:
• Ties in Current Context:
• Scotland’s Referendum:
• India & BREXIT:
• Area of Cooperation: Strategic Consultations:
• Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security:
• Area of Cooperation : Trade and Economic:
• Area of Cooperation : Energy and Climate Change:
• Area of Cooperation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space:
• Area of Cooperation : People to People Ties:
• Area of Cooperation : Defence Cooperation:
• Intellectual Property Issues:
• India and International Organisations:
• Representation in the WTO and Economic Groupings:
• How the WTO takes Decisions:
• The WTO Secretariat and Budget:
• How Countries Join the WTO:
• Assisting Developing and Transition Economies:
• Specialized Help for Export Promotion:
• The WTO’s Part in Global Economic Policy-making:
• Nairobi Package adopted at 10th WTO Ministerial Conference:
• WTO reports rise in protectionism:
• International Monetary Fund (IMF):
• India gets more Voting Rights in IMF Reforms:
• The fourth Nuclear Security Summit: 2016:
• Threats of Nuclear Terrorism:
• Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
• Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):
• Recent Support for NSG Membership for India:
• Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG?:
• Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG?:
• Argument in favour for India Joining NSG:
• Economic Environment in BRICS Countries:
• Last BRICS Summit in Goa, India:
• BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit:
• Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters:
• IBSA Potential:
• Need for Revitalizing IBSA:
• India’s Policy Options:
• Technological Collaboration:
• Indo-Pak Conflict:
• Problem of Resource Development:
• Prospects For SAARC:
• What is NAM?:
• Relevance in present era:
• Singapore:
• Vietnam:
• Indonesia:
• India ASEAN FTA in Service:
• Indian Economy in Pre-independence Period:
• Economy on Eve of Independence:
• Challenges:
• Features:
• Post-Independence India:
• Issues:
• Agriculture and its Development so far:
• Industry:
• Services:
• Phases of Economic Development in India:
• Nehruvian Socialist Economy:
• Economic Reforms:
• Planning:
• Objectives:
• Technical Details:
• Planning History:
• Analysis of each plan:
• Types of resources: Physical capital and finance capital:
• Need for resource mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State:
• Sources of resource mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector:
• Savings and investment over the five year plan:
• Budgetary resources: Tax and Non tax:
• Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.:
• Role of fiscal and monetary policies in resource mobilization:
• Role of foreign investment in resource mobilization, desirability and consequences:
• Multilateral agencies and resource mobilization:
• Meaning and concept of Inclusion:
• India’s experience:
• Social sector initiatives and inclusion process:
• Ground reality and working of flagship schemes:
• India’s growth story in this context:
• Why is India's growth not inclusive?:
• Rural economy based growth:
• Need for Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth.:
• Public distribution schemes: Way to inclusive growth.:
• Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth.:
• Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth:
• Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth.:
• Public private partnership for inclusive growth:
• Industrial Integration for inclusive growth:
• Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth.:
• Budget Terminology:
• Types of Budget:
• Features of outcome budgeting:
• Merger of Railway and General Budget:
• Benefits of budgeting:
• Flaws in budgeting process:
• Budget analysis:
• Measures of Investment:
• Capital and Investment:
• Factors affecting Investment:
• Classification of Investment:
• FDI:
• Angel Investors and Start-ups:
• M&A:
• Investment Models:
• Role of State:
• PPP (Public-Private Partnership):
• Savings and Investment Trends:
• Fiscal Policy in India:
• Important Budgetary Terms and Fiscal Concept:
• Government Revenues & Spending:
• Deficits:
• Balance Sheet:
• Taxation Meaning:
• Principles of Taxation:
• Objectives of Taxation:
• Taxation for Mobilization of Resources:
• Tax System in India:
• Subsidies:
• Tax Reforms:
• GST:
• Instruments of Monetary Policy:
• Monetary policy in pre-reform Era (1948 – 1991):
• Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991):
• Urjit Patel Committee Report:
• Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting:
• Money Market in India:
• Capital Market in India:
• Indian Capital Market Regulatory Framework:
• Primary Market Reforms in India:
• Secondary Market Reforms in India:
• Indian Banking System:
• Functions of Commercial Banks:
• Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India:
• Nationalization of Banks in India:
• Banking Reforms in India:
• New Bank Licence Criteria:
• Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria:
• Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC):
• Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India:
• Financial Inclusion:
• NPAs:
• Bills related to Banking:
• Land-use:
• Land Capability Classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Objectives of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Ceiling Legislation:
• NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing:
• Features of Agricultural Finance:
• Criteria for Agricultural Credit:
• Need for Agricultural Finance:
• Sources of Agricultural Finance:
• Problems of Agricultural Finance:
• Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture:
• Co-operative Credit Societies in India:
• Commercial Bank:
• Lead Bank Scheme:
• Multi Agency Approach:
• Regional Rural Banks:
• National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
• Reserve Bank of India:
• Kisan Credit Card Scheme:
• Self Help Group (SHG):
• Bank Linkage Programme:
• Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF):
• Government Policy For Agricultural Credit:
• Farmers Service Societies (FSS):
• Historical Background:
• Issues Related to Crop Insurance:
• Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:
• Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes:
• Challenges:
• Process of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing:
• Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Analysis of APMC Act:
• Objectives of Subsidies:
• Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies:
• Farm Subsidies:
• Fertiliser Subsidies:
• Subsidy on Power:
• Subsidy on Irrigation:
• Rationale of Minimum Support Price:
• Impact of MSP on inflation:
• Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS:
• Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers:
• Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB:
• Important questions on the future of subsidies:
• Green Revolution:
• White Revolution – Operation Flood:
• Yellow Revolution:
• Blue Revolution:
• Golden Fiber Revolution: Jute:
• Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors:
• Policy Initiatives:
• Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector FDI Policy in Food Processing:
• Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector Strategies Adopted in Budget:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector New foreign and domestic investment:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector-specific government policies:
• Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 1948 and 1956 critically:
• New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization:
• Phases of Industrial development:
• Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.:
• Strategies for disinvestment and privatization:
• Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization:
• New Manufacturing Policy:
• Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors:
• SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income:
• Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues:
• Main constraints in the industrial development of India:
• Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India:
• Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship:
• Make in India achievements:
• Transport:
• Importance and development of transport:
• Means of Transport:
• Transport costs and economic distance:
• Operating costs in transport:
• Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport:
• Profits and freight rates:
• Government’s transport policy:
• Transport patterns in the world::
• Oceanic transport Ocean transport routes:
• Inland waterways:
• Main regions of inland waterways:
• Railways: Factors affecting the railroads:
• Distribution of railroads in the world:
• Factors influencing air transport:
• Pipeline Transport:
• Petroleum (oil) Pipelines:
• Gas Pipelines:
• Transport costs and specialization:
• Transport and trade in the modern era:
• Transport costs and scale economies:
• Falling transport costs increase trade between neighbours:
• Failing transport costs lead to concentration within countries:
• Negative externalities of transport:
• Important issues Ownership and financing:
• Important issues Pricing of Public utilities:
• Important issues Infrastructure as avenues for investment:
• Important issues Project delays-reasons and measures to overcome:
• Important issues Public Private Partnership and related issues:
• Important issues Operation and Maintenance of roads, railways, irrigation and power projects-Main problems and solutions:
• Important issues Impact of Infrastructure-Economic impacts, impact on social development, environmental impacts :
• Cell Structure:
• Membranes:
• Cell-Cell Interactions:
• Energy and Metabolism:
• Respiration:
• Photosynthesis:
• How Cells Divide:
• Sexual Reproduction:
• Inheritance:
• DNA, The Genetic Material:
• Gene Expression:
• Gene Regulation:
• Mutation:
• Recombinant DNA Technology:
• Classification and Domains of Life:
• General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses:
• Prokaryotes:
• Eukaryotes:
• Protists:
• Plants:
• Fungi:
• Animals:
• Evolution of Life:
• Animal Evolution:
• Human Evolution:
• Epithelial tissue:
• Connective tissue:
• Muscle tissue:
• Beneficial animals: Corals - Earthworm -Vermiculture - Beneficial insects Prawns - Lobsters - Crabs – Pearl oysters - Fishes - Guano - Aquarium Vivarium:
• Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms Vectors - Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms - Pests.:
• Hypothalamus:
• Pineal body (epiphysis):
• Pituitary gland (hypophysis):
• Thyroid:
• Adrenal glands:
• Reproductive glands:
• External and Internal Respiration:
• Respiratory system in Plants:
• Respiratory System in Insects:
• Respiratory System in Humans and Animals:
• Transport system in a Cell:
• Transport System in Plants:
• Transport System in Animals:
• Blood Vascular System:
• The Lymphatic System:
• Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology):
• Ligaments (Syndesmology):
• Muscular System (Myology):
• Vertebrates:
• Asexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Asexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Sexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Humans:
• Excretory products:
• Excretion in plants:
• Excretion in Animals:
• Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals:
• Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments:
• Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon:
• Plant Nutrition:
• Animal Nutrition:
• Human Diet:
• The Digestive System:
• Industrial Genetics:
• Protoplast and cell fusion technologies:
• Genetic Engineering:
• DNA sequencing:
• Nucleic acid probes:
• Genomics and proteomics:
• Antisense and RNA interface:
• Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering:
• Bioprocess/fermentation technology:
• Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels:
• Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy source:
• Biofuels from biomass:
• Bioethanol from biomass:
• Biodiesel:
• Methane:
• Hydrogen:
• Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology:
• Waste water and sewage treatment:
• Landfilling technologies:
• Composting:
• Bioremediation:
• Detect and monitoring of pollutants:
• Microbes and the geological environment:
• Environmental sustainability and clean technology:
• Plant biotechnology:
• Forest Biotechnology:
• Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals:
• Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines:
• Animal organs for human patients:
• Genetically modified insects:
• Food and beverage fermentations:
• Microorganisms as food:
• Enzymes and food processing:
• Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners:
• Organic acids and polysaccharides:
• Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods:
• Biotechnology and medicine:
• Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals:
• Antibiotics:
• Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies:
• Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins:
• Pharmacogenetics:
• Molecular biology and human disease:
• Diagnostics in developing countries:
• Gene Therapy:
• Systems biology and medicine:
• Stem cell biotechnology:
• Patent protection Trade secrets:
• Plant breeders’ rights:
• Diseases in News:
• India Declared Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free:
• IPV Injection:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• New TB Drug Regimen:
• E-Cigarettes:
• Digital Biopiracy:
• Kendrapara Sheep:
• DNA Tagging of Convicts:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• Genetically Modified Mosquito:
• Designer Babies’ OR Three Parents Babies:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020:
• Types of orbits:
• Launch Vehicle:
• Satellite communication in India:
• INSAT Satellite application:
• Remote sensing applications:
• Cryogenic rockets:
• Global Positioning System:
• Galileo:
• GLONASS:
• IRNSS:
• GAGAN:
• Chandrayaan – I & II:
• Mars Orbiter Mission:
• Space Organisations:
• Space race/Space junk:
• Recent updates:
• South Asia Satellite: Significance:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Solar Mission- ADITYA:
• Gravitational Waves:
• FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope):
• Spitzer Space Telescope:
• Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope:
• Chandra X-ray Observatory:
• James Webb Space Telescope:
• ARIES/Devasthal Telescope:
• Multi Application Solar Telescope:
• Thirty Metre Telescope:
• Resourcesat- 2A:
• ASTROSAT:
• Sunspot:
• Magnetars:
• Neutron stars:
• Air-breathing propulsion system:
• Space Junk:
• Graveyard Orbit:
• India, NASA join hands for:
• Astrobiology Mission:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Indian Space Vision-2025:
• Missile system and classification:
• On the basis of type:
• On the basis of launch vehicle:
• On the basis of Range:
• On the basis of propulsion system:
• India’s Missile System Agni:
• India’s Missile System Prithvi:
• India’s Missile System Trishul:
• India’s Missile System Nag:
• India’s Missile System Dhanush:
• India’s Missile System Astra:
• India’s Missile System Prahaar:
• BrahMos Missile System:
• Indian Submarines and Naval Ships:
• Light Combat Aircraft:
• Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
• Stealth technology:
• Chemical Weapon:
• Biological Weapon:
• Types of nuclear reactions:
• Nuclear Power Reactor:
• N-Power Policy of India:
• Advantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Non-energy applications of Nuclear energy:
• Impact of Radiation:
• Issue of Radioactive Waste:
• Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB:
• Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants:
• Nuclear & Radiological Disasters:
• Computers:
• Generation of computers:
• Computer terminologies:
• Supercomputer and its applications:
• Information technology:
• Components of IT:
• IT enabled services:
• Application of IT:
• Display technologies:
• Cathode ray:
• LCD:
• LED:
• Plasma Monitors:
• OLED:
• Telecommunications:
• Mobile generations:
• Smartphone:
• Important concepts:
• Government initiatives:
• Digital India Initiative:
• MeghRaj:
• Code Free for India:
• E-Kranti:
• Bharat Net project:
• Bharat QR:
• Contemporary debates:
• Net Neutrality:
• Internet of Things:
• Big Data Initiative and Privacy:
• Cyber crime and security:
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra:
• BharatQR:
• Digital Transaction Methodologies:
• Smart Credit Cards:
• Bharat Net Project:
• Wi-fi Technology:
• BlockChain Technology and Bitcoins:
• Digital Terrestrial Television:
• Transmission System:
• Disaster Management Network:
• Param Ishan:
• Internet of Things:
• What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?:
• Origination of Nanoscience and Technology:
• Basics of Nanoscience:
• Nanomaterials:
• Applications of nanotechnology:
• Nano medicine:
• Semiconductors and computing:
• Food:
• Textiles:
• Sustainable energy:
• Environment:
• Transport:
• Space:
• Agriculture:
• Adverse Health and Environmental:
• Impacts of Nanotechnology:
• Social and Ethical Impacts::
• Nano-science and nano-technology in India:
• What is Robotics?:
• Machine vs Computer vs Robots:
• Parts of a Robot:
• Controller:
• Manipulator:
• End Effector:
• Sensor:
• Classification of Robots:
• Rolling Robots:
• Walking Robots:
• Autonomous Robots:
• Artificial Intelligence:
• Applications of Robotics:
• Industrial Sector:
• Aerospace:
• Healthcare Delivery:
• Outer Space:
• Exploration:
• Military Robots:
• Disaster Areas:
• Entertainment:
• Agriculture:
• Domestic work:
• Dimensions of Ethics:
• Essence of Ethics:
• Approaches of Ethical Study as Indian Perspective and Western Perspective:
• Basic concept of ethics morality and value:
• Ethics in public life:
• Ethics in Economic Life:
• Freedom and Discipline:
• Duties and Rights:
• Virtue Ethics:
• Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions:
• Values and Ethics in Government: Legislature, Executive and judiciary:
• Contribution of Family in Value Education:
• Contribution of Society in Inculcating Values:
• Role of Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values:
• Human Value & Socialization:
• Individual Personality and Value:
• Values and Skill:
• Fundamental and Instrumental Values:
• Democratic Values:
• Role of ethical value in governance and society:
• Significance of value in civil services:
• Aesthetic values:
• Values in work life and professional ethics:
• Essential Aptitude for Civil Servants:
• Foundational Values of Civil Services:
• Neutrality:
• Anonymity:
• Civil Services Accountability:
• Integrity:
• Humility:
• Adaptability:
• Magnanimity:
• Perseverance:
• Perseverance:
• Impartiality and Non-Partisanship:
• Tolerance and compassion for the weaker section:
• Contribution to Society:
• Indian Thinkers Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian Thinkers Dr. S. Radhakrishnan:
• Indian Thinkers Rabindranath Tagore:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Dayanand Saraswati:
• Indian Thinkers Mahadeva Govinda Ranade:
• Indian Thinkers Sri Aurobindo:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Vivekananda:
• Indian Thinkers Sardar Patel:
• Indian Thinkers Buddha Bhim Rao Ambedkar:
• Indian Thinkers Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
• Indian Thinkers Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj:
• Indian Thinkers Mother Teresa:
• Indian Thinkers Amitabha Chowdhury:
• Indian Thinkers Aruna Roy:
• Indian Thinkers T. N. Seshan:
• Indian Thinkers E. Sreedharan:
• Administrative Thinkers Max Weber:
• Administrative Thinkers Elton Mayo:
• Administrative Thinkers Peter Drucker:
• Administrative Thinkers Chestar Barnard:
• Administrative Thinkers Mary Parker Follet:
• World Thinkers Plato:
• World Thinkers Aristotle:
• World Thinkers Socrates:
• World Thinkers Jeremy Bentham:
• World Thinkers JS Mill:
• World Thinkers Thomas Hobbes:
• World Thinkers John Locke:
• World Thinkers Jean Jacques Rousseau:
• World Thinkers John Rawls:
• World Thinkers Immanuel Kant:
• World Thinkers Carol Gilligan:
• World Thinkers Jean Paul Sartre:
• World Thinkers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel:
• World Thinkers Confucius:
• World Thinkers René Descartes:
• World Thinkers Karl Marx:
• World Thinkers Adam Smith:
• World Thinkers Thomas Aquinas:
• World Thinkers David Hume:
• World Thinkers Democritus:
• World Thinkers Galileo:
• World Thinkers Friedrich Nietzsche:
• World Thinkers Montesquieu:
• World Thinkers Voltaire:
• World Thinkers Thomas Jefferson:
• Indian & World Leaders Benjamin Franklin:
• Indian & World Leaders Martin Luther King:
• Indian & World Leaders Dalai Lama:
• Indian & World Leaders Nelson Mandela:
• Indian & World Leaders Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian & World Leaders Siddhartha Gautama:
• Indian & World Leaders Aung San Suu Kyi:
• Indian & World Leaders Swami Vivekanand:
• Indian & World Leaders Albert Einstein:
• Indian & World Leaders Abraham Lincoln:
• Indian & World Leaders Mother Teresa:
• Indian & World Leaders J L Nehru:
• Indian & World Leaders Lee Kuan Yew:
• Indian & World Leaders Abdul Kalam:
• Indian & World Leaders Henry Ford:
• Indian & World Leaders Muhammad Yunus:
• Indian & World Leaders Wangari Maathai:
• Indian & World Leaders Kofi Annan:
• Indian & World Leaders Lech Walesa:
• Indian & World Leaders Desmond Tutu:
• Indian & World Leaders Isaac Newton:
• Indian & World Leaders Elie Wiesel:
• Indian & World Leaders King Ashoka:
• Indian & World Leaders Sun Yat Sen:
• Components of Attitude Affective component:
• Components of Attitude Cognitive component:
• Components of Attitude Behavioral component:
• Functions of Attitude Adjustive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Ego-Defensive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Value-Expressive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Knowledge Function:
• Functions of Attitude Attitude Formation Model:
• Functions of Attitude Impact of Beliefs and Values:
• Functions of Attitude Group Influences:
• Functions of Attitude Social Influence:
• Functions of Attitude Persuasion Tactics:
• Functions of Attitude Tools of Persuasion:
• Functions of Attitude Moral Attitude formation:
• Functions of Attitude Political Attitude formation:
• Theories Associated with Emotional Intelligence:
• Can Emotional Intelligence be Developed?:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Awareness Cluster: Understanding Feelings and Accurate Self-Assessment:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Management Cluster: Managing Internal States, Impulses, and Resources:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Social Awareness Cluster: Reading People and Groups Accurately:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Relationship Management Cluster: Inducing Desirable Responses in Others:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence at Workplace:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Civil Services:
• Ethical Concerns in Public Institution:
• Ethical Concerns in Private Institutions:
• Ethical Dilemmas in Public and Private Institutions:
• Laws, Rules and Regulations as Source of Ethical Guidance:
• Accountability and Ethical Governance:
• Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance:
• Moral Judgments in International Relations:
• Ethical Relation in Funding:
• International Relations and concept of Moral Responsibility:
• Ethics in working of international organizations:
• What is Corporate Governance?:
• Models of Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Steps taken by World Bank for Good Corporate Governance:
• Norms for Corporate Government in India:
• Concept of business ethics:
• Concept of Public Service:
• Philosophical basis of Governance and Probity:
• Information Sharing, Transparency and Right to Information:
• Flaws in RTI and recommendations for improvement:
• Importance of vigilant citizens:
• Information sharing and participation:
• Importance of Code of ethics:
• Code of Ethics in Professions:
• Code of Conduct for Ministers; for Legislators; for Civil Servants; for Regulators and for the Judiciary:
• Components of a Citizen Charter:
• Steps in formulation of a Citizen’s Charter:
• Concept of Work Culture:
• The Indian Approach to Work:
• Methods of improving Work Culture:
• Quality of Service Delivery:
• Utilisation of Public Funds:
• Problems in Fund Release and Utilization:
• Parliamentary Control on Expenditure:
• Corruption in India: extent, dimension, and response:
• Corruption as a social evil:
• Probity in public life Corrupt practice among civil servants and official misconduct:
• Exposing corruption: Civil Society initiatives and role of Whistleblower Act:
• Tackling corruption: Role of government and institutions of governance:
• Controlling corruption: Various approaches and efficacy:
• Social and ethical angle:
• Different arguments related to Euthanasia:
• Conclusion:
• Case study:
• Issues:
• Ethical Issues:
• Concept of ethical surrogacy:
• Conclusion:
• Importance of sports:
• Ethical Issue: Need for sportsmanship:
• Ethical Issue: Doping:
• Ethical Issue: Discrimination and Sexual Harassment:
• Ethical Issue: Sports as a Business:
• Steps needed:
• Role of Media:
• Ethical Issues faced by Reporters:
• Trial by Media:
• Media Prejudice:
• Ethical Dilemma faced by Photojournalists:
• Digital Media Ethics:
• Paid News:
• Principles of Business Ethics:
• Dimensions related to Business Ethics in Organisation:
• Business Ethics and Corporate Governance:
• Journey from Philanthropy to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues in implementation of Business Ethics:
• Why are Economic Sanctions placed?:
• Ethics in Economic Sanctions:
• Conclusion:
• Why Migration occur?:
• Case study of Syria:
• Dilemmas related to Refugee crisis:
• Steps needed:
• What is Globalisation:
• Free trade in Globalised world:
• Issues with Newly developed trade patterns:
• Criticism against global regime:
• Way forward:
• Ethics and War theories:
• Evils of war:
• Linkage between Ethics and Environment:
• Theories related to Environmental ethics:
• Role of Individual:
• Issues related to Stem Cell:
• Issues related to cloning:
• Issues related to designer babies:
• Introduction:
• Issues of conducting research on animals:
• Issue of keeping animals as pets:
• Issue of Cruelty against animals:
• Conclusion:
• Ethical dimension:
• Ethical issue related to food additive:
• Law of abortion in India:
• Recent Supreme Court verdict:
• Ethical Issue: Health of Women vs. fetus:
• Justification for abortion:
• Argument against abortion:
• Abortion and women rights:
• Abortion and father rights:
• Honour killing is unethical:
• Role of khap panchayat:
• Why Marital Rape should and should not be criminalized?:
• What are the hurdles?:
• Labour:
• Rights of children:
• Child labour and company:
• Solution:
• Role of consumer:
• Juvenile justice system:
• Negative implications:
• Ethical issues:
• Issues faced:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Ethical principles in Public relationships:
• Linkage between Private relationships and Public relationships:
• Ecological Hierarchy:
• Scope of Ecology:
• Habitat & Ecological Niche:
• Deep vs Shallow Ecology:
• Ecological Principles:
• Ecological Community Structure and Characteristics of a Community:
• Ecological Community Stratification:
• Ecological Community Ecotones:
• Ecological Community Ecological Dominance:
• Ecological Community Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation:
• Ecological Community Periodicity:
• Ecological Community Turnover:
• Ecological Community Interdependence:
• Ecological Succession Types and Process of Succession:
• Ecological Succession Climax Community:
• Range of Tolerance, Maximum Range:
• Difference between Ecology:
• Environment and Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Definitions:
• The Structure/Components of Ecosystem:
• Abiotic Components:
• Functions and Properties of Ecosystem Biotic Components:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Flow of Energy in Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Trophic Levels:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Types & Significance of Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Web:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Models for Energy Flow:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Ecological Productivity:
• Ecological Pyramid:
• Biomagnifications:
• Biological Control:
• Organic Farming:
• Parts of a Bio Geochemical Cycle:
• Types of Biogeochemical Cycle:
• Carbon Cycle:
• Nitrogen Cycle:
• Phosphorus Cycle:
• Sulphur Cycle:
• Biome:
• Grasslands:
• Tundra:
• Deserts:
• Thar Desert:
• Mountain Biome:
• Aquatic Ecosystems:
• Basic facts about the ocean:
• Importance of the ocean:
• Zones of the ocean Marine life:
• Coral reefs:
• Coral reefs in India:
• Conserving coral reefs:
• Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Freshwater in India:
• Importance of lakes:
• National Lake Conservation Plan:
• Wetlands and their importance:
• Ramsar Convention:
• Ramsar Sites:
• Montreux Record:
• Extent and distribution of wetlands in India:
• Conserving the wetlands of India:
• Biodiversity:
• Important kinds of Biodiversity:
• Degree of Diversity in an Ecosystem Endemic species:
• Keystone species:
• Indicator species:
• Invasive species:
• Allopatric and sympatric speciation:
• Bioinformatics Biodiversity distribution:
• Megadivers Countries:
• Uses and values of Biodiversity:
• State of global Biodiversity:
• Threats to Biodiversity:
• Biodiversity Hotspots:
• Eco-regions:
• Role of traditional knowledge in biodiversity:
• Biopiracy:
• Extinction of species:
• Mass extinction:
• IUCN’s classification scheme:
• IUCN Red-List of Threatened Species:
• Level of biodiversity in India:
• Biogeographic classification of India:
• Ex-situ aid in-situ conservation:
• Seed Banks:
• Zoos in Biodiversity Conservation:
• Botanical Gardens:
• Protected areas:
• State of protected areas in the world:
• UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB):
• Characteristics of Biosphere Reserves:
• International Agreements for Biodiversity Conservation:
• Convention on Biological Diversity:
• Cartagena Protocol:
• Nagoya Protocol:
• Aichi Biodiversity Targets:
• Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas of India:
• Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of India:
• Global Tiger Initiative:
• Project Tiger:
• Project Elephant:
• Indian Rhino Vision:
• Recovery Programme for Critically Endangered Species:
• Use of indigenous knowledge for conserving biodiversity:
• Seed village:
• Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment:
• Effect of Housing on Environment:
• Effect of Power Generation on Environment:
• Effect of River Valley Projects:
• (Water Resource Projects) on Environment:
• Effect of Mining on Environment:
• Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment:
• Effect of Tourism on Environment:
• Water Cycle (Hydrological Cycle):
• Availability and Quality Aspects (groundwater depletion):
• Water-borne and Water-induced Diseases:
• Fluoride Problem in Drinking Water:
• Arsenic Problem in Drinking Water:
• Mining and Environment:
• Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining:
• Impact of Mining:
• Indirect Impact of Mining:
• International Laws on Mining:
• Main Act or Statute to regulate the impact of Indian Mining Sector:
• Sustainable Mining:
• Causes of Deforestation:
• Implications of Deforestation for Climate Change:
• Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India:
• Impact of Deforestation on Indian Monsoon:
• Impact of Deforestation on People:
• Deforestation Leads to Water and Soil Resources Loss and Flooding:
• Economical Impacts:
• Strategies for Reducing Deforestation:
• Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests:
• Legislations for Conservation of Forests using People Participation:
• Steps for Improving People Participation in Forest Resource Management:
• Use of Local Traditional Methods:
• Solid Waste:
• Hazardous Waste:
• E-Waste:
• Bio Medical Waste:
• Plastic Waste:
• Methods for Waste Management:
• Effects of Poor Waste Disposal:
• Landfill:
• Principles of Sustainability:
• Measurement of Sustainability or Sustainable Ethics or Equitable Utilisation of Natural Resource:
• Sustainable Lifestyle (Role of an individual in sustainable, development):
• Challenges to Sustainable Development:
• International Efforts to Achieve Sustainability:
• Air Pollution:
• Sources of Air Pollution:
• Effects of Air Pollution:
• Classification of Air Pollutant:
• Control Measures of Air Pollution:
• Air Pollution Disasters:
• Long Range Transport of Gaseous Air Pollutants:
• National Ambient Air Quality Standards:
• Water Pollution:
• Sources of Water Pollution:
• Types of Water Pollutants:
• Effects of Water Pollution:
• Water Quality Standards:
• Control of Water Pollution:
• Thermal Pollution:
• Sources of Thermal Pollution:
• Effects of Thermal Pollution:
• Control of Thermal Pollution:
• Soil Pollution or Land Degradation:
• Sources of Soil Pollution:
• Effects of Soil Pollution:
• Control Measures:
• Noise Pollution:
• Air-borne Diseases:
• Toxic Substances: Toxicant, Toxicity and Toxicology:
• Factors affecting toxicity:
• Carcinogens:
• Sources of Solid Waste:
• Effect of Solid Waste:
• Control Measures of Solid Waste:
• Solid Waste Management Rules:
• Hazardous Waste Management (HWM):
• Mangroves:
• Salient features of Mangroves:
• Importance of Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Mangroves under threats:
• Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection:
• Estuaries:
• Importance of estuaries:
• Threats to estuaries:
• Coral Reefs:
• Geographical Conditions Required:
• Uses of coral reefs:
• Conservation of coral reef:
• Steps for Coastal Ecosystem Management:
• Air Pollution:
• Report on Air Pollution:
• Bharat Stage Emission Standards:
• Polluters Pay Model:
• Household Air Pollution:
• Open Waste Burning and its Impact:
• Graded Response Action Plan on Pollution:
• UN Sets Limits on Global Airline Emissions:
• Waste Management:
• Biodegradable Plastics:
• Green Train Corridors:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management-Buffer Zone:
• Other News:
• Report of Parliamentary Committee on Forest Fires:
• Urban Forestry Scheme:
• Draft Notification to Regulate Pet Shops:
• Ban on Import of Animal Skin:
• River linking Project and Impact on:
• Environment:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Illegal Salt Mining and its Impact:
• India’s Wetland Report, 2016:
• Deep Sea Mining:
• Mass Coral Bleaching:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Government Body which Executes EIA:
• Environmental Effects Analysed under EIA:
• Process of EIA:
• EIA Ruling 1984:
• Environmental Laws: Provisions in the Indian Constitution towards Environmental Protection:
• Salient Features of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981*:
• Salient Features of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
• Salient features of Forest Conservation Act, I980:
• Salient Features of Wildlife Protection Act,1972:
• Salient Features of Environment (Protection) Act,1986:
• Role of Government in Environmental Protection:
• Pollution Control Boards:
• National Green Tribunal:
• Forest Survey of India:
• National Board for Wildlife:
• Ecomark Scheme:
• National Afforestation Program:
• National River Conservation Plan:
• National Mission for Clean Ganga:
• National Air Quality Index (AQI):
• National Action:
• Programme to Combat Desertification:
• UJALA Scheme:
• Bharat Stage Norms:
• UNEP:
• UNDP:
• Centre for Biological Diversity:
• WWF for Nature:
• IUCN - Red List:
• Birdlife International:
• International Conventions/Protocols & their Objectives:
• Green House Effect and Global Warming:
• Global Climate Change: International Efforts to Control Global Warming or Global Climate Change:
• Ozone Layer Depletion/Ozone Hole:
• Acid Rain:
• El Nino:
• La Nina:
• Pollution in metros and climate change:
• Real estate boom and environment degradation:
• Urban Heat Island:
• Polythene bags and pollution:
• Methane generation from waste:
• Agriculture Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions:
• Monoculture Practice Impacts Biodiversity:
• Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers:
• Soil-related effects:
• Fertilizers’ Effect on the Environment:
• Impact of livestock on environment:
• Impact of use of Pesticides on Environment:
• Impact of GM crop on Environment:
• Emission of Methane from agricultural practices:
• Sustainable Agriculture Techniques:
• Health impacts of global warming:
• Mosquito-borne diseases:
• Ozone depletion and human health:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Climate Change Indicators: WMO report:
• IPCC 5th Assessment Report:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• International Solar Alliance (ISA):
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20):
• Kigali Agreement:
• Climate Change Performance Index:
• Man-Animal Conflicts in India:
• Poaching activities in India:
• Controlling wildlife crimes using sniffer dogs:
• Draft on animal cruelty:
• Formation of Tiger Reserves: Critical Analysis:
• International treaties for wildlife conservation:
• Use of drones for wildlife conservation:
• Indoor Air Pollution and its impact:
• Impact of Particulate Matter:
• Smog and its impact:
• Plastic Pollution:
• Light Pollution:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management:
• E-waste Management Rules 2016:
• Groundwater contamination:
• Bharat Stage Norm:
• What is the Polluters Pay Model?:
• Paris Agreement:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• Kigali Agreement:
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment):
• International Solar Alliance:
• Programmes and Policies Initiated for Mitigating Climate Change:
• International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Concept of Green Bond:
• Green Climate Fund:
• Carbon Tax Feasibility in India:
• Concept of Green Building:
• Climate Change and Cities:
• Ethical issue involved in climate change:
• Climate change and its impact on Health:
• National Solar Mission:
• Status of Hydro Power energy in India:
• Status of Wind Energy in India:
• Green Transportation:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act:
• Draft National Wildlife Action Plan:
• Draft Wetland Management Rules:
• Initiatives to enhance green cover:
• Policy on Promotion of City Compost:
• Living status to Rivers:
• National Hydrology Project:
• Pollution Control Board: Analysis:
• National Green Tribunal: Analysis:
• Forest Survey of India:
• Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee:
• Traditional Knowledge Digital Library:
• T S R Subramanian Panel Report:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Melting of Antarctica and its Impact:
• River linking project and its Impact:
• Public Participation for Environmental Conservation:
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• -1' OR 2+669-669-1=0+0+0+1 or 'gg1OtTnu'=':
• Periodization of Indian pre history:
• Sources of prehistory:
• Stone ageo Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC):
• Stone age Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC):
• Stone age Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC):
• Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC):
• Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC):
• Impact of Iron:
• Neolithic Phase:
• Chalcolithic Phase:
• Early Iron Phase:
• Geographical Distribution and Characteristics:
• Major cities:
• Town Planning:
• Harappan Trade:
• Agriculture:
• Domestication of animals:
• Crafts:
• Religion:
• Harappan Pottery:
• Weights and Measures:
• Script and Language:
• Images:
• Decline of Harappan Culture:
• Original Home of Aryans:
• Features of Aryan Culture:
• Vedic Texts:
• Sources for Reconstructing :
• Vedic Society and Culture:
• Geography of the Rig Vedic Period:
• Geography of the later Vedic Phases:
• Economic Conditions:
• Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy:
• Social Organisation and Varna System:
• Religion and Thought:
• Formation of states:
• The Sixteen Mahajanapadas:
• Republics:
• Rise of urban centres:
• Haryanka dynasty:
• Shishunaga dynasty:
• Nanda dynasty:
• Chandragupta and Bindusara:
• Megasthenes:
• Asoka and His Successors:
• Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites:
• Asoka’ a Dhamma:
• Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art:
• The Arthasastra:
• Society Evolution of Jatis:
• Sangam Texts-and Society:
• Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties:
• Foreign Dynasties:
• Commercial Contacts with the Outside World:
• Schools of Art:
• Jainism:
• Buddhism:
• Sources of Gupta Rule:
• Political history of Guptas:
• Fahien:
• Gupta Administration:
• Gupta Culture:
• Urban centres in Gupta period:
• Economic Conditions:
• Sources for Harsha’s Period:
• Early life of Harsha:
• Harsha’s Administration:
• Important Officials of the empire:
• Economy under Harsha:
• Society:
• Religion:
• The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225):
• The Pallavas (AD 330–796):
• The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190):
• The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323):
• The Timurids:
• The Timurid-Uzbek and Uzbek-Iran Conflict and Babur:
• Babur’s Advance towards India:
• Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur:
• The Battle of Panipat:
• Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat:
• Struggle with Rana Sanga:
• Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans:
• Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India:
• Humayun and the Afghans:
• Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah:
• The Gujarat Campaign:
• The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan:
• The Surs:
• Sher Shah’s Early Life:
• Social and Political Background of Bihar and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power.:
• The Sur Empire (1540-56):
• Contributions of Sher Shah:
• Conflict with the Afghans - Hemu:
• Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s:
• Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles:
• Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) - Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India:
• Relations with the Rajputs - Growth of a Composite Ruling Class:
• Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West:
• Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty:
• Structure of Government, Central and Provincial - the Vikalat, Central Ministries, Provincial Government,:
• District and Local Government:
• The Working of Government - the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System. The Mansabdari System and the Army:
• Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms:
• The Early Phase (1556-73):
• The Second Phase (1573-80) - the Ibadat Khana:
• Debates - the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox:
• Ulama - Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants:
• Third or Final Phase - Din-i-Ilahi :
• State Policies and religious toleration:
• The Deccani States upto 1595:
• Mughal Advance towards the Deccan:
• Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar:
• Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27):
• Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal:
• Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda:
• Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57):
• Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States:
• Akbar and the Uzbeks:
• The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran:
• Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign:
• Mughal - Persian Relations - the Last Phase:
• Jahangir’s Accession - his Early Difficulties:
• Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Mewar, East India and Kangra:
• Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’:
• The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan:
• Jahangir as a Ruler:
• State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century:
• Shah Jahan - Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire:
• Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System:
• War of Succession:
• Religious Policy: First Phase (1658-79):
• Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu:
• Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707):
• Territorial Consolidation and:
• Expansion of Empire - North India:
• Popular Revolts - Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs:
• Breach with Marwar and Mewar:
• Rise of the Marathas - Early Career of Shivaji :
• Treaty of Purandar - the Agra Visit:
• Shivaji’s Swaraj – Administration and Achievements:
• Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87):
• Marathas and the Deccan (1687-1707):
• Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis:
• Rural Society:
• Towns and Town Life:
• Artisans and Master-Craftsmen:
• Women:
• Servants and Slaves:
• Standard of Living:
• The Ruling Classes - Nobility, Rural Gentry:
• The Middle Strata:
• The Commercial Classes:
• Inland Trade:
• Overseas Trade - Role of Foreign Trading companies - Position of Indian merchant’s over-land Trade:
• The Mughal State and Commerce:
• Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century:
• Religion- Hindu Religion, Sikh Religion, Islam:
• Fine Arts - Architecture, Painting, Language and Literature, Music:
• Science and Technology:
• Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle:
• For Wizarat - Rajput Affairs - Marathas:
• Deccan - Accentuation of the Party Struggle:
• Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13):
• The Sayyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48):
• The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion:
• The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa:
• The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
• First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);:
• Third Battle of Panipat:
• Later Mughals:
• Regional powers in 18th Century:
• The British conquest of India:
• The wars during British conquest of India:
• British Administration before 1857:
• Indian National Movement (1858-1905):
• Early Nationalists and Swadeshi Movement:
• Government of India Act 1909:
• Home rule league movement:
• Montague’s statement – Aug 1917:
• Emergence of Gandhi – as a mass leader:
• Khilafat & non-Cooperation Movement (NCM):
• Swaraj party:
• Revolutionary Terrorism phase II (1920’s):
• Simon Commission and Nehru report:
• Civil Disobedience Movement:
• Round table conference:
• Poona pact:
• Government of India Act 1935:
• Tripuri session – 1939:
• August offer:
• Individual Satyagraha 1940-41:
• Popular struggles in the princely states:
• 2nd World War and Nationalist response:
• Rise of Communalism:
• Wavell plan:
• Cabinet Mission Plan:
• Mountbatten plan:
• Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement:
• Civil Rebellions during British:
• Tribal movements during British period:
• Peasant’s movement during British period:
• Working class Movement (1850-1900):
• Growth of communalism:
• Left and communist trends in National Movement:
• Press and education during British period:
• Role of women in Freedom Struggle:
• Governor generals of India:
• Viceroys of India:
• Important persons:
• Important newspaper/journals:
• Congress sessions:
• Constitutional provisions related to State formation:
• Factors that led to merger:
• Accession of the princely states:
• Accession of States under France and Portuguese:
• Accession of Sikkim:
• Rehabilitation of the Refugees:
• Federal crisis:
• Regional aspirations, insurgencies and areas of tension:
• Accommodation and national integration:
• Constitutional position and language policy:
• Language and regionalism:
• Recent controversy due to rise of Hindi:
• Issues & Present Status:
• Policy consolidation:
• Issues & challenges:
• Women movements:
• Government policy response and legislation:
• Governmental schemes:
• Caste practices in India:
• Ambedkar Movement:
• Constitutional provisions:
• Recent government initiatives for emancipation of Scheduled Castes:
• Issues of Manual Scavenging:
• Secularism:
• Causes of Communalism in India:
• Consequences of the communalism and social consolidation:
• Operational Inefficiency:
• Government initiatives:
• Planning in India:
• Industry:
• Service sector:
• Current challenges facing the Indian economy:
• Agriculture:
• Journey through Five Year Plans:
• Land Reforms:
• Post Green Revolution Agricultural Issues:
• Agrarian Movements:
• Achievements in Agriculture Since Independence:
• Recent Challenges:
• Industrial development since independence:
• Public sector since independence:
• Sectoral Development:
• Private Sector since Independence:
• Industrial Policy since Independence:
• Make in India:
• Impact of New Economic Policy:
• India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology:
• Institutional Framework for Science and Technology Development:
• Science and Technology in Pre- Reform Period:
• Impact of Economic Reform on the:
• Science and Technology in India: New Policy Initiatives in the S&T:
• Science and Technology in India: Agenda of the Skill Training:
• Disintegration of the Feudal System:
• Renaissance:
• Humanism:
• Art and Architecture:
• Literature:
• Science:
• Reformation etc.:
• Explorations, Discovery, Trade:
• Colonization – Rise of Nation State:
• The English Revolution:
• Causes:
• The revolution in France:
• France under Napoleon:
• Impact of revolution:
• Significance of revolution:
• Rise of the nation- state system:
• Unification of Italy:
• Unification of Germany:
• Colonialism:
• The age of Imperialism (1870-1914):
• Imperialism in Asia:
• Analysis of Colonialism:
• Foundation of American Colonies:
• The Independence of United States of America:
• The American Revolutionary War:
• What was the impact of American Revolution?:
• Political Effects of the Revolution:
• How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?:
• US Civil War:
• Impact of Civil War on USA:
• Global Impact of US Civil War:
• Impact on India:
• Major causes of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Analysis of major events of the war:
• Consequences of World War I:
• Aftermath of World War I:
• League of Nations:
• Major events in pre-revolution Russia:
• Causes:
• Course of revolution:
• Consequences:
• Aftermath of the war:
• Post-Lenin Russia:
• The Great Depression:
• The Great Depression- an economic perspective:
• Rise of Fascism in Italy:
• Rise of Nazism in Germany:
• Soviet Union (USSR):
• Foundations of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Aftermath of war:
• Analysis of the war:
• Decolonization phase:
• Democratic reforms in Middle East:
• Arab nationalism:
• Israel:
• Reasons:
• Development of Cold War (1945-1953):
• To what extent was there a thaw after 1953?:
• Nuclear Arms Race and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962):
• Global issues since 1991:
• Integration of Europe:
• European integration- a timeline:
• Rise of global Islamic terrorism:
• Rise of China:
• Capitalism (concept, types and example):
• Communism (concept, types, example):
• Relevance of capitalism in present era:
• Sculptures of Harappan Civilization:
• Sculptures of Mauryan Age:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Jain Sculptures:
• Buddhist Sculpture:
• Gupta Sculpture:
• Medieval School of Sculpture:
• Modern Indian Sculpture:
• Harappan Period:
• Mauryan Architecture:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Gupta Period:
• Temples of Khajuraho:
• Temples of Odisha:
• Temples of Gwalior:
• Temples of Gujarat:
• Temples of Rajasthan:
• Temples of Bengal:
• Temples of Assam:
• Temples of Himachal Pradesh:
• Temples of Jammu and Kashmir:
• Pallava Period:
• Chola Period:
• Pandya Temples:
• Vijayanagar Period:
• NayakaTemples:
• Temples of Kerala:
• Vesara Style:
• Hoysala Style:
• Rashtrakuta Period:
• Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate):
• Provincial Style:
• Mughal Style:
• Sikh Style of Architecture:
• Rajput Architecture:
• Salient features:
• European Influence:
• Indo-Saracenic Architecture:
• Post-Independence Period:
• Tradition of Mural Paintings in India:
• Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India:
• Paintings in the Deccan:
• Rajput School of Painting:
• Pahari School of Painting:
• Miniature Painting in South India:
• Regional Paintings:
• Modern Paintings:
• Contemporary Paintings:
• Ochre: Colored Pottery (OCP):
• Black and Red Ware (BRW):
• Painted Grey Ware (PGW):
• Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW):
• Glazed and Unglazed Pottery:
• Main Pillars of Indian Music:
• Forms of Indian Music:
• Musical Instruments:
• Institutions Related to Music:
• Concept of Dance in India:
• Concept of Ashta Nayika:
• Eight Classical Dance Forms in India:
• Folk Dances:
• Modern Dances:
• Genesis of Martial Arts:
• Forms of Traditional Martial Arts:
• Classical Sanskrit Theatre:
• Regional Theatre:
• Modern Theatre:
• Renaissance of Indian Theatre:
• String Puppets:
• Shadow Puppets:
• Rod Puppets:
• Glove puppets:
• Modern Puppetry:
• Tribal Puppetry:
• Cinema in India:
• History of Indian Cinema:
• Classification of Indian Cinema Film:
• Music of India:
• Pre-Vedic Religion:
• Hinduism:
• Buddhism:
• Jainism:
• Sikhism:
• Islam:
• Christianity:
• Zoroastrianism:
• Judaism:
• Philosophy in India:
• Bhakti Movement:
• Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation:
• Other Saints of Bhakti Movement:
• Maharashtra Dharma:
• Sufism:
• Sanskrit Literature:
• Pali Literature:
• Prakrit Literature:
• Tamil Literature:
• Telugu Literature:
• Malayalam Literature:
• Kannada Literature:
• Odia Literature:
• Assamese Literature:
• Bengali Literature:
• Gujarati Literature:
• Rajasthani Literature:
• Punjabi Literature:
• Marathi Literature:
• Hindi Literature:
• Persian Literature:
• Urdu Literature:
• Indian Handicrafts:
• Indian Universities:
• Personalities Related to Culture:
• Places of Cultural Interest:
• Fairs and Festivals in India:
• Cultural Institutions in India:
• Awards and Honors Associated with Culture:
• The Calendar:
• The Eras:
• Science and Technology in Ancient India:
• UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India:
• Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage:
• The origin of the Earth Early Theories:
• The origin of the Earth Modern Theories – BBT:
• The origin of the Earth Star Formation:
• The origin of the Earth Formation of Planets:
• The origin of the Earth Solar System:
• The Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure (5 layers):
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Lithosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Atmosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Hydrosphere:
• Geological History of the Earth:
• Earth Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians:
• Earth Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects:
• Earth Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects:
• Earth Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar:
• Earth Eclipses - Solar, Lunar:
• Origin of Life:
• Geological Time Scale:
• Interior of the Earth Direct Sources :
• Interior of the Earth Indirect Sources (EarthQuake Waves, Volcanoes):
• Interior of the Earth :
• Interior of the Earth Crust:
• Interior of the Earth Mantle:
• Interior of the Earth Core:
• Geology Minerals:
• Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust:
• Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz,:
• Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine:
• Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak:
• Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity:
• Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non-Ferrous:
• Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement:
• Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals):
• Petrology:
• Rocks & landforms:
• Rocks & Soils:
• 3 Family of Rocks:
• Igneous:
• Sedimentary:
• Metamorphic:
• Rock Cycle:
• Earthquakes:
• Waves: P, S, Body, Surface,:
• Shadow Zone:
• Types of Earthquakes:
• Effects:
• Frequency:
• Locating an Epicenter:
• Volcano:
• Types Shield:
• Types Composite:
• Types Caldera:
• Types Flood Basalt:
• Types Mid Ocean Ridge:
• Landforms (intrusive):
• Batholiths:
• Laccoliths:
• Lapoliths:
• Phacoliths:
• Sills:
• Dykes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Earth’s Surface Exogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Endogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Gradation, Degradation & Aggradation:
• Geomorphic Process:
• Endogenic Process:
• Diastrophism:
• Orogenic:
• Epeirogenic:
• Earthquakes:
• Plate movements:
• Volcanism:
• Exogenic Forces:
• Denudation Processes:
• Weathering:
• Mass movements:
• Erosion Transportation & Deposition:
• Distribution of Continents & Oceans:
• Theories:
• Continental Drift Theory:
• Alfred Wegner 1912:
• Pangea, Panthalasa:
• Laurasia, Gondwanaland:
• Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory:
• Jigsaw Fit:
• Rocks of Same age across oceans:
• Tillite:
• Placer Deposits:
• Distribution of Fossils:
• Forces of Drifting:
• Pole Fleeing Force:
• Tidal Force:
• Post Drift Studies:
• Convectional Current Theory:
• Mapping of the Ocean Floor:
• Continents – plate Tectonics:
• Lithospheric Plates:
• Major Plate:
• Minor Plates:
• Plate Boundaries:
• Divergent:
• Convergent:
• Transform:
• Rates of Plate Movements:
• Force of plate movements:
• Indian Plate:
• Movement from 71 million years ago till Today:
• Landforms and their Evolution:
• Causes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Agents:
• Geomorphic Agents Erosional or Destructional:
• Geomorphic Agents Depositional or Constructional:
• Agents and their Impacts Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents:
• Winds One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts:
• Winds Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact:
• Winds Erosional landforms:
• Pediments and Pedi plains:
• Playas:
• Deflation Hollows and Caves:
• Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks:
• Depositional Landforms Barchans:
• Depositional Landforms Seif:
• Depositional Landforms Parabolic:
• Depositional Landforms Transverse:
• Depositional Landforms Longitudinal:
• Running Water Humid Regions:
• Running Water Two Components:
• Overland Flow – Sheet:
• Linear Flow – Streams:
• Stages:
• Youth Mature Old:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Valleys:
• Rills:
• Gullies:
• Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary):
• Potholes & Plunge pools:
• Incised or entrenched meanders:
• River Terraces – paired & unpaired:
• Depositional Landforms Alluvial Fans:
• Depositional Landforms Delta:
• Depositional Landforms Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars:
• Depositional Landforms Meanders, Slip off bank,:
• Depositional Landforms Undercut bank:
• Depositional Landforms Oxbow lake:
• Depositional Landforms Braided Channels:
• Ground Water (Karst Topography) :
• Permeable Rocks:
• Percolation:
• Bedding Plains:
• Limestone and Dolomite Regions:
• Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Pools-Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements:
• Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels:
• Depositional landforms Stalactites :
• Depositional landforms Stalagmites:
• Depositional landforms Pillar Columns:
• Glaciers:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cirque of Tarn Lakes:
• Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete:
• Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Glacial Tills:
• Moraines:
• Eskers:
• Outwash Plains:
• Drumlins:
• Waves and Currents:
• High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cliffs:
• Terraces:
• Caves:
• Stacks:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Beaches and Dunes:
• Bars Barriers Spits:
• Weathering:
• Weather over Earth Materials:
• Factors:
• Geological:
• Climatic:
• Topographic:
• Vegetative:
• Major Processes:
• Chemical:
• Physical or Mechanical:
• Biological:
• Chemical – Forces Chemical Action:
• Solution:
• Carbonation:
• Hydration:
• Oxidation & Reduction:
• Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure:
• Unloading & Expansion:
• Temperature changes and Expansion:
• Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging:
• Salt Weathering:
• Biological Weathering:
• Burrowing:
• Wedging:
• Plant Roots:
• Effects of Weathering:
• Exfoliation (Flaking)– Exfoliation:
• Domes, Tors:
• Significance of Weathering:
• Soil Formation:
• Biomes and Biodiversity:
• Leaching / Enrichment:
• Mass Movements Activating causes:
• Mass Movements Forms of movement – Heave:
• Mass Movements Flow Slide:
• Mass Movements 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides:
• Landforms across the world: Rivers and lakes:
• Landforms across the world: Mountain and Peaks:
• Landforms across the world: Plateaus:
• Composition:
• Gases:
• Water Vapour:
• Dust Particles:
• Structure:
• Exosphere:
• Thermosphere:
• Mesosphere:
• Stratosphere:
• Troposphere:
• Altitude vs Temperature:
• Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature:
• Insolation:
• Aphelion and Perihelion:
• Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth:
• Day Season Year:
• Rotation on Axis, Angle of:
• Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day:
• Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.:
• Heat Balance:
• Heating and cooling of atmosphere:
• Conduction:
• Convection:
• Advection:
• Terrestrial Radiation:
• Heat Budget of the Planet Earth:
• Macro Budget:
• Albedo:
• Shortwave Radiation:
• Long wave Earth Radiation:
• Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface:
• Temperature:
• Factors controlling T distribution:
• Distribution of T Month of January-July:
• Range of T Month of January-July:
• Inversion of Temperature:
• Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems:
• Atmospheric Pressure:
• Vertical variation of pressure:
• Horizontal distribution of pressure:
• World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure:
• Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the:
• WIND:
• Pressure Gradient Force:
• Frictional Force:
• Coriolis Force:
• Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation):
• General Circulation of the Atmosphere Pattern of Planetary Winds:
• Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating:
• Emergence of Pressure Belts:
• Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun:
• Distribution of continents & Oceans:
• Rotation of the Earth:
• Circulation:
• Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell:
• Seasonal Wind:
• Local Wind:
• Land and Sea Breezes:
• Mountain and Valley winds:
• AIR MASS – fronts:
• ExtraTropical Cyclone:
• Thunderstorms:
• Tornadoes:
• Water in the Atmosphere:
• Water Vapour:
• Precipitation:
• Humidity – Absolute and Relative:
• Saturation – Dew Point:
• Evaporation and Condensation:
• Dew:
• Frost:
• Fog & Mist:
• Clouds:
• Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus:
• High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus:
• Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus:
• Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus:
• Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus:
• Precipitation:
• Rainfall Snowfall Sleet Hail Hailstones:
• Types of Rainfall:
• Conventional:
• Orographic:
• Cyclonic:
• World Distribution of Rainfall:
• World Climate:
• The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate:
• The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical:
• Marine Climates:
• The Savanna or Sudan Climate:
• The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates:
• The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate:
• The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate:
• The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate:
• The Arctic or Polar Climate:
• Water on the Surface of the Earth Hydrological Cycle:
• Component:
• Processes:
• Oceans:
• Oceans Relief of the Ocean floor:
• Oceans 4 divisions of the ocean floor:
• Continental Shelf:
• Continental Slope:
• Deep sea plain:
• Oceanic deep and Trenches:
• Minor relief features:
• Mid oceanic ridges:
• Seamount:
• Submarine canyons:
• Guy outs:
• Atoll:
• Temperature of the Ocean Water:
• Vertical:
• Spatial:
• Factors affecting Temperature Distribution:
• Latitude:
• Unequal distribution of land & Water :
• Prevailing wind:
• Ocean Currents:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution Thermocline:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution 3 layers:
• Salinity of the Ocean Water:
• Factors affecting salinity:
• Evaporation and precipitation:
• Fresh water flow from rivers:
• Wing:
• Ocean currents:
• Horizontals distribution of salinity:
• Vertical Distribution of salinity:
• Density of Ocean Waters:
• Movements of ocean Water:
• Factors influencing Movement:
• Temperature:
• Salinity:
• Density:
• Sun Moon winds:
• Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents:
• Waves:
• Motion of waves and water molecules:
• Characteristics Of WAVE:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Crest and Trough:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Height:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Amplitude:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Period:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Length:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Speed:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Frequency:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Tides:
• Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides:
• Tidal currents:
• Types of Tides:
• Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed:
• Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides:
• Importance of Tides:
• Ocean Currents:
• Influenced by 2 forces:
• Primary Force that initiates the movement:
• Heating of solar energy:
• Wind:
• Gravity:
• Coriolis force:
• Secondary force that influence the currents to flow:
• Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots:
• Types of ocean currents Surface currents & Deep-water currents based on Depth:
• Types of ocean currents Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature:
• Major Ocean currents of the World:
• Effects of Ocean Currents:
• Underground water resource:
• Surface water resources:
• Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources by ma:
• Oceanic water resources: Main features of ocean:
• Utilization of oceans by man:
• Water consumption patterns:
• Water pollution:
• Conservation of water resources:
• Techniques of water conservation:
• Soil Characteristics:
• Soil Factors Responsible for Soil Formation:
• Soil Stages of Soil Formation:
• Soil Forming Processes:
• Soil Profiles and Horizons:
• Soil Classification:
• Soil Erosion and Conservation:
• Vegetation resources Types of natural vegetation:
• Vegetation resources Forests:
• Vegetation resources Significance of forests:
• Economic significance, Ecological significance:
• Cultural significance:
• Factors of forest development:
• Extent of forest cover:
• Classification of forests Grasslands:
• Classification of forests Desert vegetation:
• Classification of forests Tundra Vegetation:
• Economic utilization of forests:
• Deforestation in tropical forests:
• Deforestation in temperate forests:
• Deforestation Rate and extent of deforestation:
• Deforestation Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation:
• Deforestation Indirect deforestation:
• Deforestation Underlying causes of deforestation:
• Conservation of forests Forest conservation strategies:
• Conservation of forests Reforestation:
• Conservation of forests Monoculture plantation:
• Conservation of forests Afforestation:
• Types of forestry Social forestry:
• Types of forestry Agroforestry:
• Concept of Human Resources:
• Population Distribution:
• Factors of population distribution Physical Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Socio Cultural Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Demographic Factors:
• World Population Distribution Ecumene:
• World Population Distribution Non-ecumene:
• Continent wise distribution of Population:
• Density of population:
• Pattern of Population density:
• Population Increase (Growth) in the World:
• Causes of Rapid Increase in Population:
• Present Trend:
• Future Projection:
• Determinants of Population Growth:
• Natural Increase:
• Characteristic of Population Age Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Population Pyramids:
• Characteristic of Population Sex Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Literacy:
• Theories of population growth Malthusian theory:
• Theories of population growth Marxian theory:
• Theories of population growth Demographic transition theory:
• Optimum population Over-population:
• Optimum population Under-population:
• Population problems Population problems of developing countries:
• Population problems Population problems of developed countries:
• Population problems Population dilemma of Europe:
• Population Policies: of China, of India:
• Various types of rural settlements:
• Relationship between house types with relief, climate and building materials:
• Basic Feature and Pattern of India’s Urbanization:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Rural Urban Migration:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Emergence of Slums:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Transport:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Waste Disposal:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Electronic Waste:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Poverty:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Bill, 2013:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Inclusive Cities/Smart cities:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Recent government programmes::
• Migration:
• Displacement:
• Importance of the Rehabilitation Policy:
• Urban settlements: types:
• Urbanization process in India.:
• Morphology of urban settlements:
• Town planning and patterns of rural settlement:
• Settlement types of the world:
• Migration: Push factors and pull factors:
• Emigration during colonial, post-independent and post-liberalisation period:
• Internal versus world migration:
• Functional classification of cities:
• Difference between boundaries and frontiers, their classification:
• Rural urban fringe characteristics, advantages, problems:
• National urbanization policy:
• Principles of urban planning:
• Land cover transformation:
• Factors affecting rural settlements, their types and patterns:
• Cities – hierarchical classification, morphological classification:
• Literacy:
• Sex ratio:
• Family Planning:
• Old Age:
• Age Structure:
• Density:
• Population growth:
• Census terminology:
• Land resource:
• Land-use:
• Land capability classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Basic terms related to Agriculture:
• Performance of the agriculture sector:
• Types of farming in India:
• Dry zone farming:
• Organic farming:
• Cropping seasons in India:
• Cropping Pattern in India:
• Agriculture regionalization:
• Infrastructure factors: Seeds;:
• Fertilizers; Irrigation:
• Land use pattern in India:
• Institutional Factors as land reform:
• Horticulture sector in India:
• Agricultural revolutions:
• Agricultural labourers:
• Price Policy for Agriculture:
• Agricultural marketing:
• Agricultural Insurance:
• Agricultural Census:
• Major schemes in agricultural sector:
• National Policy for farmers:
• Impact of climate change on agriculture:
• What is sustainable agriculture?:
• Use of IT in agriculture:
• Agriculture Issues and Challenges:
• Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth:
• Wheat:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Types of cultivation:
• Production patternInternational trade:
• Rice:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Methods of cultivation:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Maize (Corn):
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Barley:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Oats:
• Rye:
• Beverages:
• Tea:
• Condition of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Coffee:
• Types of coffee:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Cocoa:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Tobacco:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Fibre Crops:
• Cotton:
• Varieties of cotton:
• Cotton Conditions of growth:
• Cotton Production pattern:
• Cotton International trade:
• Jute:
• Jute Conditions of growth:
• Jute Production pattern:
• Jute International trade:
• Jute Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp:
• Jute Abaca, Henequen:
• Jute Sisal:
• Raw Silk:
• Raw Silk Production pattern:
• Raw Silk International trade:
• Natural Rubber:
• Natural Rubber Other sources of rubber:
• Natural Rubber Plantations in South-east Asia:
• Natural Rubber Production pattern:
• Natural Rubber International trade:
• Sugarcane:
• Sugarcane Conditions of growth:
• Sugarcane Production pattern:
• Sugarcane International trade:
• Sugarcane Sugar Beet - Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• Sugar industry:
• Sugar consumption:
• International trade:
• Types of minerals: Metallic minerals:
• Non-metallic mineral:
• Distribution of minerals and mining regions:
• Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore:
• Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous:
• Manganese:
• Chromium:
• Nickel:
• Tungsten:
• Antimony:
• Copper:
• Bauxite and Aluminium:
• Zinc; Lead:
• Tin:
• Precious metals: Gold:
• Silver:
• Platinum:
• Mineral chemicals:
• Mineral chemicals Mica:
• Mineral chemicals Potash:
• Mineral chemicals Phosphate:
• Mineral chemicals Nitrates:
• Mineral chemicals Sulphur:
• Conservation of mineral resources:
• Classification of energy:
• Production of conventional energy:
• General trends of energy production and consumption:
• Reserves and sources of energy:
• Coal Nature and origin of coal:
• Constituents and kinds of coal:
• Coal fields and coal production:
• By products of coal:
• Conservation of Coal Petroleum:
• Petroleum:
• Nature and properties of petroleum:
• Petroleum Origin and recovery:
• Petroleum Exploration:
• Petroleum refining:
• Petroleum reserves:
• Producing areas:
• Consumption of petroleum:
• International trade:
• OPEC and its role in oil trade:
• Natural gas: Reserves and Production:
• Hydro-electricity:
• Advantages of hydro-electricity:
• Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity:
• Distribution of potential hydro-power:
• Hydro-electric power generation:
• Atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Atomic: source minerals: Uranium:
• World distribution of uranium:
• Production of uranium:
• Thorium:
• Production of atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Nuclear energy: the energy of future:
• Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy:
• Solar energy:
• Wind energy:
• Geothermal power:
• Tidal energy:
• Wave energy:
• Biomass energy:
• Alternate Energy Sources:
• Hydrogen as a Fuel for Future or Hydrogen as an Alternative Energy Source:
• Microbial Fuel Cell:
• Energy Context with Respect to Indian Scenario:
• Energy Plantation:
• Energy crisis:
• Industrial development:
• Iron and Steel Industry :
• Process of iron and steel production:
• Location of iron and steel industry:
• Early localization:
• Development of iron manufacture:
• Distribution of iron and steel industry:
• Global steel production:
• International trade:
• Growth potential of the steel industry:
• Textile Industry:
• Cotton textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Recent trends in localization:
• Distribution and production of cotton textiles:
• Woolen textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture:
• Silk textile manufacturing:
• Synthetic (artificial) silk industry::
• Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics.:
• Engineering Industries:
• Machine tools and machines: Areas of production:
• Industrial machinery: Textile machinery:
• Other industrial machinery:
• Agricultural machinery:
• Manufacturing of transport equipment:
• Automobile industry:
• Railway car and locomotive industry:
• Shipbuilding:
• Recent trends:
• Aircrafts industry:
• Chemical Industry:
• Classes of chemicals: Branches of chemical industry:
• Heavy chemical industry:
• Rise Production of acids and alk:
• Production of acids and alkalis:
• Rise of chemical industry:
• Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers:
• Phosphate fertilizers:
• Potash fertilizers:
• Explosives:
• Glass industry: Production of glass:
• Agro-industries:
• Synthetic rubber industry:
• Pulp and paper industry: Essential:
• conditions for pulp production:
• Production of paper and paper board:
• Newsprint:
• International trade:
• Salient features of pulp and paper industry:
• Cement industry:
• Distribution of cement industry:
• Recent trends: Main global competitors:
• Petroleum refining industry: Localization:
• Site selection of petroleum refineries:
• History of oil refineries:
• World pattern of oil refining:
• Petroleum products:
• Industrial Regions:
• Characteristics of industrial regions:
• Delimitation of an industrial region:
• Principal industrial regions of the world:
• Industrial regions of Anglo America-USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR:
• Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns:
• Features of Indian Society:
• Changes within Indian society and their repercussions:
• Causes of changes:
• Indian society today:
• What is diversity?:
• Types of diversities in India:
• Can diversity be equated with difference?:
• The unity in diversity- a reality or a chimera:
• Some examples:
• Manner of reconciliation:
• Women’s organizations in Indian history:
• Types of women’s organizations:
• Level of penetration:
• Women’s organization – a ray of hope:
• Few case studies:
• Problems faced by women’s organizations:
• Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same:
• Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institutions:
• Poverty:
• Concept of development:
• Sen vs Bhagwati model:
• Crisis of development:
• Certain case studies:
• Government’s initiatives and the five year plans:
• Role of civil society organizations:
• What is the meaning of globalization?:
• Kinds of impact of globalization–economic, political, developmental and socio-cultural:
• Is the impact solely positive or negative:
• Meaning and concept of social empowerment:
• Why do we need social empowerment?:
• Specific sections for whom social empowerment is the life blood:
• Social empowerment through the five year plans:
• Government’s initiatives for empowerment:
• Empowerment in reality and India’s experience:
• Other approaches /players/tools for social empowerment and some case studies on the same:
• Meaning and concept of communalism:
• Historicity of communalism:
• Recent incidents:
• Role of third parties in inciting/perpetrating communalism:
• Communalism under the law:
• Can communalism be eradicated from the Indian society completely?:
• Meaning and concept of secularism:
• Secularism through the vantage point of Indian Constitution:
• Comparisons of models Indian & Western:
• Gandhi ji on religion:
• Indian philosophy on secularism:
• Threats on the secular spirit:
• Is the Indian democracy mature enough to handle the gravity of secularism?:
• Meaning and concept of regionalism:
• Theories on regionalism:
• Regionalism in its various manifestations:
• Role of various players:
• Recent incidents causing a wave of flurry:
• Possible ways to tackle the same:
• Constitutional arrangement:
• Women welfare:
• Child welfare:
• SC/ST welfare:
• OBC welfare:
• Minorities welfare:
• Old age welfare:
• Legislations:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Education structure in India:
• Primary, secondary and higher education:
• Initiatives taken by GOI in education:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Recommendations of committees:
• Future prospects in education sector:
• Skill development:
• Health indicators:
• Health structure in India:
• Private and Public health structure:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• NITI Aayog Report:
• Economic development and human development:
• SDGs and India:
• Poverty definition by different committees:
• Poverty data in India:
• Causes of poverty:
• Poverty and unemployment:
• Poverty and social conflict:
• Impact of LPG on poverty:
• Linkage between poverty and development:
• Rural poverty:
• Urban poverty:
• Feminization of poverty:
• Poverty alleviation measures:
• Problems in implementation of Poverty alleviation programmes:
• Poverty and Hunger:
• Food security programmes and issues:
• Hunger and health:
• Impact of hunger and poverty on economic development of the nation:
• 5th Schedule Areas:
• 6th Schedule Areas:
• Composition of autonomous councils:
• Role and functions of councils:
• Role of Governor with respect to tribal areas:
• Tribal sub plan:
• Controversy related to Poverty Data Estimation:
• Start Up India Scheme:
• Stand up India Scheme:
• National Student Startup Policy:
• National Skill Development Mission:
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana:
• Skill Development Initiative Scheme:
• Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU):
• Atal Innovation Mission:
• Social Security:
• Atal Pension Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana:
• Minorities:
• Nai Roshni Scheme:
• USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development):
• Nai Manzil Scheme:
• Women and Child Development:
• Beti Bachao Beti Padhao:
• Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana:
• Digital Gudda Guddi Board:
• Sabla:
• Ujjawala Scheme:
• Janani Suraksha Yojana:
• Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram:
• SC/ST:
• Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Disability:
• Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan):
• National Health Mission:
• National Ayush Mission:
• Swasthya Rakshan Program:
• Jan Aushadhi Scheme:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• NFHS-4 survey:
• Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat:
• Mid-Day Meal Scheme:
• Ishan Uday:
• GIAN (Global Initiative of Academic Networks):
• Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan:
• SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active - Learning for Young Aspiring Minds):
• Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan:
• Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission:
• Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana:
• Swachch Bharat Abhiyan:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban:
• Housing for all by 2022:
• Smart Cities Mission:
• Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana:
• Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation):
• Jeevan Praman:
• Digilocker:
• Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network):
• INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit:
• for Inspired Research):
• SAKAAR:
• Digital India:
• Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project):
• Ganga Gram Yojana:
• Jal Kranti Abhiyan:
• Khelo India:
• One Rank One Pension Scheme:
• PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation):
• Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF):
• Measurement criteria:
• Government initiatives for inclusive growth:
• Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/ Sanitations:
• Sustainable Development:
• Rural development and poverty alleviation:
• Review of the Existing Programmes:
• Development Administration:
• Panchayati Raj:
• Agriculture and Rural Development:
• The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act:
• ‘Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016’:
• ‘Child Labor (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016’:
• Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016:
• Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act:
• Mental Health Care Bill, 2013:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty:
• HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill-2014 - Amendments:
• Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC Widens Ambit:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefits:
• Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016:
• The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act:
• Secularism and Anti-Conversion:
• Regionalism: Demand for smaller states:
• Repercussions of making Hindi compulsory:
• Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011:
• Maternity benefit Amendment Bill:
• Altruistic surrogacy in India:
• Status of widows:
• Acid Attacks:
• SC banned Women Sterilization in India:
• Issue of Sex ratio:
• Issue of Triple Talaq:
• Female Foeticide and Infanticide:
• Reservation for Women in Legislature:
• Women in Combat Duties:
• Women in panchayats:
• Women participation in Economy:
• Challenges faced by Working Women:
• Draft National Policy for Women, 2016:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses:
• Issue of malnutrition in India:
• Amendments proposed in Child Labour Act:
• Plight of street children:
• Adoption Regulations, 2017:
• National Child Policy:
• Out of school children: Issues and steps needed:
• Cradle Baby Scheme:
• Juvenile Justice System:
• Child Marriages in India:
• Draft bill on child abduction:
• National Action Plan for Children, 2016:
• Report on the Protection of Children (Inter-Country Removal and Retention) Bill, 2016:
• Social stigma attached with HIV:
• Issues related to Transgender and Transgender Persons Bill, 2015:
• Euthanasia Issue: An Analysis:
• Right to Privacy and Aadhaar:
• Mental Health Care Bill:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2016:
• Challenge of ageing with dignity:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act:
• Maintenance of Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act:
• Manual Scavenging:
• Mob lynching and Rule of Law:
• Issue related to Undertrials:
• Issues related to Sanitation:
• Sharp reality of displacement:
• Moral policing:
• Income inequality in India:
• Forest Rights Act: Analysis:
• Issue of poor infrastructure in schools:
• No Detention Policy:
• New Policy on Education:
• Lancet Report on Healthcare spending:
• New Health Policy, 2017:
• Technology Adaptation in Health Care:
• Food Fortification:
• Progress Panchayat initiative:
• National Sex Offender Registry:
• Slum Redevelopment:
• Issue of farmer suicide in India:
• Anthropological Survey of India:
• National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes:
• T.V.S.N. Prasad Report on Pellet Guns:
• Uniform Civil Code:
• Concept of Open Prison:
• Importance of Constitution:
• Historical evolution of the Constitution:
• Constituent Assembly:
• Objectives of the Constitution:
• Salient features of Indian Constitution:
• Unitary features:
• Federal features:
• Parliamentary form of government:
• Presidential form of government:
• Parliamentary vs. Presidential system of government:
• Preamble Basic features:
• Preamble Value premises of constitution:
• Preamble Terminologies as::
• Democratic:
• Sovereign:
• Socialist:
• Secular:
• Republic:
• Justice:
• Equality:
• Liberty:
• Fraternity:
• Integrity:
• Basic constitutional features:
• Methodology of getting citizenship:
• Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India:
• Concept of dual citizenship:
• Citizenship provisions in J&K:
• Special privileges enjoyed by citizens in India:
• Significance of Fundamental Rights:
• Right to Equality:
• Right to Freedom:
• Right against Exploitation:
• Right to Freedom of Religion:
• Cultural and Educational Rights:
• Right to Constitutional Remedies:
• Difference between procedure established by law and due process of law:
• Writs and their uses:
• Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights:
• Basic features:
• Directives:
• Economic and Social DPSP:
• Gandhian DPSP:
• Administrative DPSP:
• DPSP related to International Peace:
• Implementation of DPSP:
• Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy Controversy:
• Features:
• Link of Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties:
• Process of law making in India:
• Role of Constitutional and extra constitutional bodies in law making:
• Basic structure: How it evolves?:
• Different types of majorities required in Indian Constitution:
• DPSP Fundamental Rights:
• Doctrines Terminologies:
• Features in American and UK Constitution:
• Checks and balances provisions in Indian Constitution:
• Judicial Review:
• Concept of Separation of Powers:
• It should cover Comparison of USA, UK, India and neighbours:
• State Reorganization Commission (brief):
• Components of Indian territory:
• Process of formation of new states:
• Zonal Councils:
• Union territories:
• Special provisions for states:
• Regulating functions of Government:
• Development functions of government:
• Service providing functions of government:
• Problems in implementation:
• Recommendations for improvement:
• Interrelationship between union, state and local government in implementation of roles:
• Constitutional provisions related to financial devolution:
• Issues of financial devolution:
• Administrative relations:
• Legislative relations:
• Financial relations:
• Misuse of Article 356:
• Issues related to concurrent list:
• Issues related to appointment of Governor:
• Issues related to state formation:
• Poor devolution of finances:
• Reserving bill for Presidential approval:
• Central sponsored schemes and issues:
• Special package for different states:
• Issues between Centre and State after 1990 reforms:
• Foreign policy and Centre and State Relations:
• Importance of President:
• Qualification:
• Election procedure:
• Advantages and disadvantages of single transferable form of voting:
• Presidents’ Term of Office and emoluments:
• Executive Powers:
• Legislative Powers:
• Emergency Powers:
• Financial Powers:
• Miscellaneous powers:
• Judicial powers:
• Presidents Impeachment:
• President as nominal head:
• Issues Ordinance making power:
• Issues Passage of bills:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Pardon power:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Coalition government:
• Office of the Vice-President:
• Functions:
• Appointment of PM:
• Functions of PM:
• Role of PM with respect to CoM:
• Role of PM with respect to President:
• Role of PM with respect to Lok Sabha:
• Role of PM with respect to Political Party:
• Role of PM with respect to Coalition Government:
• Division of CoM:
• Role of CoM:
• Role of Cabinet:
• Responsibilities of the Ministers:
• Qualification:
• Functions:
• Powers with respect to parliament:
• Composition of Rajya Sabha:
• Composition of Lok Sabha:
• Composition of Legislative assembly and Legislative Council:
• Qualification and disqualification of MPs and MLAs:
• Vacation of seats:
• Sessions of parliament:
• Law making procedure:
• Officers of Parliament and state legislature:
• Parliament Proceedings:
• Motions and resolutions in Parliament:
• Powers and Privileges:
• Financial proceedings:
• Comparison of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:
• Comparison of Legislative assembly and council:
• Women reservation in Parliament and issues:
• Lowering of Parliamentary powers:
• Parliamentary committees and their working:
• Judicial activism and Parliament:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Supreme Court Composition:
• Independence of Supreme Court:
• Jurisdiction of SC:
• Judicial Review:
• High Court Composition:
• High Court Terms and removal:
• High Court Jurisdiction:
• High Court Other powers:
• High Court Lower judiciary:
• High Court Appointment:
• High Court Powers:
• The role of the Supreme Court of India as guardian of the Constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights:
• Judicial Review:
• PIL:
• Judicial Activism:
• Judiciary appointment:
• Collegiums System:
• NJAC Controversy:
• National Court of Appeal:
• Judicial Accountability:
• Issues of corruption in judiciary:
• Functioning of Ministries:
• Central Secretariat:
• Cabinet Secretary:
• Field organizations:
• Reforms needed:
• International methodology:
• Provisions of 73rd AA and 74th AA:
• Role and functions of different tiers:
• Municipal Corporations:
• Municipal Councils:
• Nagar Panchayats:
• The steps taken towards women’s empowerment:
• Role of State Election commission:
• Role of State Finance Commission:
• Smart City Mission & Municipal Governance:
• What is Dispute redressal mechanism?:
• Need of Dispute redressal mechanisms:
• Administrative tribunal and issues:
• Fast Track Courts and issues:
• Gram Nyayalayas and issues:
• Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and issues:
• Family Courts and issues:
• Lok Adalat and issues:
• NALSA and issues:
• Dispute redressal for Weaker section:
• Arbitration Mechanism:
• International Arbitral Centre:
• Commercial Court:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• Role of CAG in good governance:
• Appointment, term of office, qualification, etc:
• Powers:
• Discretionary powers:
• Ordinance making power:
• Appointment:
• Powers and responsibilities:
• Relationship between the Governor and the Chief Minister:
• Relationship between CoM and the Chief Minister:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• The composition of Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad:
• Qualifications of the Members of Legislature:
• Powers and Functions of State Legislature:
• Relationship between both the Houses:
• Officers of State Legislature:
• Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members:
• Legislative procedure:
• Governor’s assent to Bills:
• Procedure in Financial Matters/Budget:
• Growth and Development:
• Human Development and Human Capital Formation:
• Equality (interpersonal and interregional) and social justice:
• • Unity and Integrity:
• Trust between state and citizens:
• What is effective implementation? Best outcomes in view of given time, resources and constraints:
• Analysis of different important schemes:
• Good Governance-Role of institutions, bureaucrats and other stakeholders:
• Transparency and accountability:
• Optimum use of resources- Right targeting, plugging leakages and wasteful expenditure, use of available knowledge, research and innovation.:
• Monitoring and evaluation- Outcome budget, zero base budgeting, input output analysis, cost-benefit analysis:
• Setting up institutions and regulatory norms task forces, steering committees and review committees.:
• Difference between Growth and Development:
• Main Constraints of Development:
• Main Stakeholders in Development Process:
• Self Help Groups Meaning:
• Self Help Groups Importance:
• Self Help Groups Objectives:
• Self Help Groups Institutional Structure and Organization:
• Self Help Groups Funding:
• Micro Finance Meaning and importance:
• Micro Finance Objectives:
• Micro Finance Structure and Organization:
• Micro Finance Advantages:
• Micro Finance Micro Finance in India:
• Non-Government Organizations:
• What are NGOs?:
• Difference between Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs):
• United Nations Criteria for INGO and NGO:
• NGOs and Development Projects:
• NGOs and Community Development:
• NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation:
• NGOs involved in disaster management:
• NGOs and advocacy:
• Citizen Centric Governance:
• Features of Good Governance:
• Legislative accountability:
• Administrative accountability:
• Judicial accountability:
• Ombudsman:
• Whistleblowers Concept:
• Anti Corruption Machinery:
• Role of Citizens:
• Role of Media:
• Social Audit:
• Systematic Reforms:
• Introduction:
• Applications:
• Models:
• Successes:
• Limitations:
• Future prospects:
• Citizens Charters:
• Models:
• Features:
• CC in India:
• Issues in CC Implementation:
• Reform needed:
• Concept of Civil Services:
• Need for Civil Services:
• Different Role of Civil Services:
• Law making:
• Policy formulation:
• Policy implementation:
• Policy evaluation:
• Civil services as protector of democracy:
• To protect minorities (religious and linguistic) :
• To promote Inclusive and sustainable growth:
• What are pressure groups?:
• Types:
• The significance of pressure groups in India:
• Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party:
• Evaluation of pressure groups role:
• Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment) - composition of CAG:
• Functions and responsibilities of CAG:
• Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment) - composition of ECI:
• Functions and responsibilities of ECI:
• Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament):
• Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC:
• Functions and responsibilities of UPSC:
• Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment) - composition of Finance commission:
• Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission:
• Powers and privileges of the Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• National Commission for SCs and STs.:
• SEBI:
• CVC:
• CBI:
• Planning Commission:
• NDC:
• PMO:
• Zonal Council:
• TRAI:
• IRDA:
• National Human Rights Commission:
• State Human Rights Commission:
• Central Information Commission:
• State Information Commission:
• National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission:
• Tribunal:
• Medical Council Of India:
• Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority:
• Biodiversity Authority Of India:
• Press Council Of India:
• Forward Markets Commission:
• Inland Waterways Authority Of India RBI:
• Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950:
• Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951:
• Electoral reforms:
• Criminalization of politics:
• Negative or neutral voting:
• State funding of Elections:
• Irregularities in polling:
• Political parties in India:
• Party reforms:
• Problems in the working of parties :
• Casteism and politics:
• Reforms in Party system in India:
• Strengthening of Anti-defection measures:
• Types of pressure groups:
• Role of pressure group in developing countries:
• Functions of pressure groups in India:
• Pressure groups and Methods:
• Pressure groups and Democracy:
• Criticism of pressure groups:
• Background of Relation:
• Political:
• Economic:
• The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation:
• Social:
• Psychological:
• The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi:
• Recommendations to Improve Relations:
• Economy: A Broad Overview:
• India, Bhutan and China: issues:
• The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister:
• A Long History of Bilateral Relations:
• The India-Afghanistan Development Partnership:
• Strategic factors undergirding India’s Partnership with Afghanistan:
• Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal:
• Options for India:
• Development Partnership:
• India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy:
• Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis:
• Geostrategic Importance of Maldives:
• Development Cooperation:
• Security Risks:
• Commercial Relations:
• Developmental Cooperation:
• Fishermen Issue:
• Relation through ages:
• Recent change in policy:
• China Role:
• Major Crisis:
• Water Dispute:
• Current Internal Scenario:
• Impact on India:
• Developments in Last One Year:
• Economic Relation:
• China India Water Related Issue:
• “String of Pearls Strategy”:
• China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India:
• Main Disputes:
• Resources as a Driver of Competition:
• Attempts for Resolution:
• India and South China Dispute:
• The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift:
• South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust:
• Piracy off the coast of Somalia:
• Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism:
• Energy Routes:
• Fisheries and Livelihood Issues:
• Environmental Security:
• Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace:
• India and Asian Nations relations:
• India-Turkmenistan:
• India-Kazakhstan:
• India Tajikistan:
• China And Central Asia:
• International North-South Transport Corridor:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
• India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation:
• Deal on Uranium Supply:
• Visit:
• Political and economic relation:
• Oil Economic Relation:
• Iran Nuclear Deal and India:
• India Iran Relations:
• US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran:
• Israel and Palestine:
• India – Israel Relations:
• Areas of Cooperation:
• Challenges in Relations:
• Zones of Activity:
• Regional Groupings:
• Geopolitics of Asia Pacific:
• Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations:
• India-ASEAN Security Co-operation:
• Economy Centric Relationship:
• Contemporary Perspective:
• India South Korea Relations:
• Economic Partnership in Recent Years:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Strategic Cooperation:
• Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation:
• China’s Response:
• India’s Response:
• Historical Connections:
• Gandhi’s Role:
• Nehru’s Role:
• Strengthening of Ties:
• South-south Engagement:
• Current Dynamics:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Human resources development and capacity building:
• Energy Cooperation:
• Military Security Co-operation:
• Trade Policy under Modi:
• Afro-Indian Trade:
• Indian investment in Africa:
• African investment in India:
• Development cooperation and assistance:
• Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora:
• Economic Relationship:
• Issue of Nuclear Cooperation:
• India-Russia Bilateral Relationship:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organization:
• Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia:
• Strategic Partnership:
• Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France:
• Indian-Germany Economic Relations:
• Ties in Current Context:
• Scotland’s Referendum:
• India & BREXIT:
• Area of Cooperation: Strategic Consultations:
• Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security:
• Area of Cooperation : Trade and Economic:
• Area of Cooperation : Energy and Climate Change:
• Area of Cooperation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space:
• Area of Cooperation : People to People Ties:
• Area of Cooperation : Defence Cooperation:
• Intellectual Property Issues:
• India and International Organisations:
• Representation in the WTO and Economic Groupings:
• How the WTO takes Decisions:
• The WTO Secretariat and Budget:
• How Countries Join the WTO:
• Assisting Developing and Transition Economies:
• Specialized Help for Export Promotion:
• The WTO’s Part in Global Economic Policy-making:
• Nairobi Package adopted at 10th WTO Ministerial Conference:
• WTO reports rise in protectionism:
• International Monetary Fund (IMF):
• India gets more Voting Rights in IMF Reforms:
• The fourth Nuclear Security Summit: 2016:
• Threats of Nuclear Terrorism:
• Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
• Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):
• Recent Support for NSG Membership for India:
• Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG?:
• Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG?:
• Argument in favour for India Joining NSG:
• Economic Environment in BRICS Countries:
• Last BRICS Summit in Goa, India:
• BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit:
• Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters:
• IBSA Potential:
• Need for Revitalizing IBSA:
• India’s Policy Options:
• Technological Collaboration:
• Indo-Pak Conflict:
• Problem of Resource Development:
• Prospects For SAARC:
• What is NAM?:
• Relevance in present era:
• Singapore:
• Vietnam:
• Indonesia:
• India ASEAN FTA in Service:
• Indian Economy in Pre-independence Period:
• Economy on Eve of Independence:
• Challenges:
• Features:
• Post-Independence India:
• Issues:
• Agriculture and its Development so far:
• Industry:
• Services:
• Phases of Economic Development in India:
• Nehruvian Socialist Economy:
• Economic Reforms:
• Planning:
• Objectives:
• Technical Details:
• Planning History:
• Analysis of each plan:
• Types of resources: Physical capital and finance capital:
• Need for resource mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State:
• Sources of resource mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector:
• Savings and investment over the five year plan:
• Budgetary resources: Tax and Non tax:
• Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.:
• Role of fiscal and monetary policies in resource mobilization:
• Role of foreign investment in resource mobilization, desirability and consequences:
• Multilateral agencies and resource mobilization:
• Meaning and concept of Inclusion:
• India’s experience:
• Social sector initiatives and inclusion process:
• Ground reality and working of flagship schemes:
• India’s growth story in this context:
• Why is India's growth not inclusive?:
• Rural economy based growth:
• Need for Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth.:
• Public distribution schemes: Way to inclusive growth.:
• Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth.:
• Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth:
• Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth.:
• Public private partnership for inclusive growth:
• Industrial Integration for inclusive growth:
• Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth.:
• Budget Terminology:
• Types of Budget:
• Features of outcome budgeting:
• Merger of Railway and General Budget:
• Benefits of budgeting:
• Flaws in budgeting process:
• Budget analysis:
• Measures of Investment:
• Capital and Investment:
• Factors affecting Investment:
• Classification of Investment:
• FDI:
• Angel Investors and Start-ups:
• M&A:
• Investment Models:
• Role of State:
• PPP (Public-Private Partnership):
• Savings and Investment Trends:
• Fiscal Policy in India:
• Important Budgetary Terms and Fiscal Concept:
• Government Revenues & Spending:
• Deficits:
• Balance Sheet:
• Taxation Meaning:
• Principles of Taxation:
• Objectives of Taxation:
• Taxation for Mobilization of Resources:
• Tax System in India:
• Subsidies:
• Tax Reforms:
• GST:
• Instruments of Monetary Policy:
• Monetary policy in pre-reform Era (1948 – 1991):
• Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991):
• Urjit Patel Committee Report:
• Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting:
• Money Market in India:
• Capital Market in India:
• Indian Capital Market Regulatory Framework:
• Primary Market Reforms in India:
• Secondary Market Reforms in India:
• Indian Banking System:
• Functions of Commercial Banks:
• Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India:
• Nationalization of Banks in India:
• Banking Reforms in India:
• New Bank Licence Criteria:
• Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria:
• Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC):
• Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India:
• Financial Inclusion:
• NPAs:
• Bills related to Banking:
• Land-use:
• Land Capability Classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Objectives of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Ceiling Legislation:
• NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing:
• Features of Agricultural Finance:
• Criteria for Agricultural Credit:
• Need for Agricultural Finance:
• Sources of Agricultural Finance:
• Problems of Agricultural Finance:
• Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture:
• Co-operative Credit Societies in India:
• Commercial Bank:
• Lead Bank Scheme:
• Multi Agency Approach:
• Regional Rural Banks:
• National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
• Reserve Bank of India:
• Kisan Credit Card Scheme:
• Self Help Group (SHG):
• Bank Linkage Programme:
• Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF):
• Government Policy For Agricultural Credit:
• Farmers Service Societies (FSS):
• Historical Background:
• Issues Related to Crop Insurance:
• Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:
• Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes:
• Challenges:
• Process of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing:
• Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Analysis of APMC Act:
• Objectives of Subsidies:
• Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies:
• Farm Subsidies:
• Fertiliser Subsidies:
• Subsidy on Power:
• Subsidy on Irrigation:
• Rationale of Minimum Support Price:
• Impact of MSP on inflation:
• Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS:
• Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers:
• Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB:
• Important questions on the future of subsidies:
• Green Revolution:
• White Revolution – Operation Flood:
• Yellow Revolution:
• Blue Revolution:
• Golden Fiber Revolution: Jute:
• Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors:
• Policy Initiatives:
• Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector FDI Policy in Food Processing:
• Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector Strategies Adopted in Budget:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector New foreign and domestic investment:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector-specific government policies:
• Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 1948 and 1956 critically:
• New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization:
• Phases of Industrial development:
• Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.:
• Strategies for disinvestment and privatization:
• Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization:
• New Manufacturing Policy:
• Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors:
• SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income:
• Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues:
• Main constraints in the industrial development of India:
• Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India:
• Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship:
• Make in India achievements:
• Transport:
• Importance and development of transport:
• Means of Transport:
• Transport costs and economic distance:
• Operating costs in transport:
• Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport:
• Profits and freight rates:
• Government’s transport policy:
• Transport patterns in the world::
• Oceanic transport Ocean transport routes:
• Inland waterways:
• Main regions of inland waterways:
• Railways: Factors affecting the railroads:
• Distribution of railroads in the world:
• Factors influencing air transport:
• Pipeline Transport:
• Petroleum (oil) Pipelines:
• Gas Pipelines:
• Transport costs and specialization:
• Transport and trade in the modern era:
• Transport costs and scale economies:
• Falling transport costs increase trade between neighbours:
• Failing transport costs lead to concentration within countries:
• Negative externalities of transport:
• Important issues Ownership and financing:
• Important issues Pricing of Public utilities:
• Important issues Infrastructure as avenues for investment:
• Important issues Project delays-reasons and measures to overcome:
• Important issues Public Private Partnership and related issues:
• Important issues Operation and Maintenance of roads, railways, irrigation and power projects-Main problems and solutions:
• Important issues Impact of Infrastructure-Economic impacts, impact on social development, environmental impacts :
• Cell Structure:
• Membranes:
• Cell-Cell Interactions:
• Energy and Metabolism:
• Respiration:
• Photosynthesis:
• How Cells Divide:
• Sexual Reproduction:
• Inheritance:
• DNA, The Genetic Material:
• Gene Expression:
• Gene Regulation:
• Mutation:
• Recombinant DNA Technology:
• Classification and Domains of Life:
• General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses:
• Prokaryotes:
• Eukaryotes:
• Protists:
• Plants:
• Fungi:
• Animals:
• Evolution of Life:
• Animal Evolution:
• Human Evolution:
• Epithelial tissue:
• Connective tissue:
• Muscle tissue:
• Beneficial animals: Corals - Earthworm -Vermiculture - Beneficial insects Prawns - Lobsters - Crabs – Pearl oysters - Fishes - Guano - Aquarium Vivarium:
• Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms Vectors - Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms - Pests.:
• Hypothalamus:
• Pineal body (epiphysis):
• Pituitary gland (hypophysis):
• Thyroid:
• Adrenal glands:
• Reproductive glands:
• External and Internal Respiration:
• Respiratory system in Plants:
• Respiratory System in Insects:
• Respiratory System in Humans and Animals:
• Transport system in a Cell:
• Transport System in Plants:
• Transport System in Animals:
• Blood Vascular System:
• The Lymphatic System:
• Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology):
• Ligaments (Syndesmology):
• Muscular System (Myology):
• Vertebrates:
• Asexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Asexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Sexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Humans:
• Excretory products:
• Excretion in plants:
• Excretion in Animals:
• Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals:
• Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments:
• Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon:
• Plant Nutrition:
• Animal Nutrition:
• Human Diet:
• The Digestive System:
• Industrial Genetics:
• Protoplast and cell fusion technologies:
• Genetic Engineering:
• DNA sequencing:
• Nucleic acid probes:
• Genomics and proteomics:
• Antisense and RNA interface:
• Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering:
• Bioprocess/fermentation technology:
• Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels:
• Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy source:
• Biofuels from biomass:
• Bioethanol from biomass:
• Biodiesel:
• Methane:
• Hydrogen:
• Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology:
• Waste water and sewage treatment:
• Landfilling technologies:
• Composting:
• Bioremediation:
• Detect and monitoring of pollutants:
• Microbes and the geological environment:
• Environmental sustainability and clean technology:
• Plant biotechnology:
• Forest Biotechnology:
• Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals:
• Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines:
• Animal organs for human patients:
• Genetically modified insects:
• Food and beverage fermentations:
• Microorganisms as food:
• Enzymes and food processing:
• Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners:
• Organic acids and polysaccharides:
• Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods:
• Biotechnology and medicine:
• Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals:
• Antibiotics:
• Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies:
• Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins:
• Pharmacogenetics:
• Molecular biology and human disease:
• Diagnostics in developing countries:
• Gene Therapy:
• Systems biology and medicine:
• Stem cell biotechnology:
• Patent protection Trade secrets:
• Plant breeders’ rights:
• Diseases in News:
• India Declared Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free:
• IPV Injection:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• New TB Drug Regimen:
• E-Cigarettes:
• Digital Biopiracy:
• Kendrapara Sheep:
• DNA Tagging of Convicts:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• Genetically Modified Mosquito:
• Designer Babies’ OR Three Parents Babies:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020:
• Types of orbits:
• Launch Vehicle:
• Satellite communication in India:
• INSAT Satellite application:
• Remote sensing applications:
• Cryogenic rockets:
• Global Positioning System:
• Galileo:
• GLONASS:
• IRNSS:
• GAGAN:
• Chandrayaan – I & II:
• Mars Orbiter Mission:
• Space Organisations:
• Space race/Space junk:
• Recent updates:
• South Asia Satellite: Significance:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Solar Mission- ADITYA:
• Gravitational Waves:
• FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope):
• Spitzer Space Telescope:
• Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope:
• Chandra X-ray Observatory:
• James Webb Space Telescope:
• ARIES/Devasthal Telescope:
• Multi Application Solar Telescope:
• Thirty Metre Telescope:
• Resourcesat- 2A:
• ASTROSAT:
• Sunspot:
• Magnetars:
• Neutron stars:
• Air-breathing propulsion system:
• Space Junk:
• Graveyard Orbit:
• India, NASA join hands for:
• Astrobiology Mission:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Indian Space Vision-2025:
• Missile system and classification:
• On the basis of type:
• On the basis of launch vehicle:
• On the basis of Range:
• On the basis of propulsion system:
• India’s Missile System Agni:
• India’s Missile System Prithvi:
• India’s Missile System Trishul:
• India’s Missile System Nag:
• India’s Missile System Dhanush:
• India’s Missile System Astra:
• India’s Missile System Prahaar:
• BrahMos Missile System:
• Indian Submarines and Naval Ships:
• Light Combat Aircraft:
• Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
• Stealth technology:
• Chemical Weapon:
• Biological Weapon:
• Types of nuclear reactions:
• Nuclear Power Reactor:
• N-Power Policy of India:
• Advantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Non-energy applications of Nuclear energy:
• Impact of Radiation:
• Issue of Radioactive Waste:
• Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB:
• Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants:
• Nuclear & Radiological Disasters:
• Computers:
• Generation of computers:
• Computer terminologies:
• Supercomputer and its applications:
• Information technology:
• Components of IT:
• IT enabled services:
• Application of IT:
• Display technologies:
• Cathode ray:
• LCD:
• LED:
• Plasma Monitors:
• OLED:
• Telecommunications:
• Mobile generations:
• Smartphone:
• Important concepts:
• Government initiatives:
• Digital India Initiative:
• MeghRaj:
• Code Free for India:
• E-Kranti:
• Bharat Net project:
• Bharat QR:
• Contemporary debates:
• Net Neutrality:
• Internet of Things:
• Big Data Initiative and Privacy:
• Cyber crime and security:
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra:
• BharatQR:
• Digital Transaction Methodologies:
• Smart Credit Cards:
• Bharat Net Project:
• Wi-fi Technology:
• BlockChain Technology and Bitcoins:
• Digital Terrestrial Television:
• Transmission System:
• Disaster Management Network:
• Param Ishan:
• Internet of Things:
• What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?:
• Origination of Nanoscience and Technology:
• Basics of Nanoscience:
• Nanomaterials:
• Applications of nanotechnology:
• Nano medicine:
• Semiconductors and computing:
• Food:
• Textiles:
• Sustainable energy:
• Environment:
• Transport:
• Space:
• Agriculture:
• Adverse Health and Environmental:
• Impacts of Nanotechnology:
• Social and Ethical Impacts::
• Nano-science and nano-technology in India:
• What is Robotics?:
• Machine vs Computer vs Robots:
• Parts of a Robot:
• Controller:
• Manipulator:
• End Effector:
• Sensor:
• Classification of Robots:
• Rolling Robots:
• Walking Robots:
• Autonomous Robots:
• Artificial Intelligence:
• Applications of Robotics:
• Industrial Sector:
• Aerospace:
• Healthcare Delivery:
• Outer Space:
• Exploration:
• Military Robots:
• Disaster Areas:
• Entertainment:
• Agriculture:
• Domestic work:
• Dimensions of Ethics:
• Essence of Ethics:
• Approaches of Ethical Study as Indian Perspective and Western Perspective:
• Basic concept of ethics morality and value:
• Ethics in public life:
• Ethics in Economic Life:
• Freedom and Discipline:
• Duties and Rights:
• Virtue Ethics:
• Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions:
• Values and Ethics in Government: Legislature, Executive and judiciary:
• Contribution of Family in Value Education:
• Contribution of Society in Inculcating Values:
• Role of Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values:
• Human Value & Socialization:
• Individual Personality and Value:
• Values and Skill:
• Fundamental and Instrumental Values:
• Democratic Values:
• Role of ethical value in governance and society:
• Significance of value in civil services:
• Aesthetic values:
• Values in work life and professional ethics:
• Essential Aptitude for Civil Servants:
• Foundational Values of Civil Services:
• Neutrality:
• Anonymity:
• Civil Services Accountability:
• Integrity:
• Humility:
• Adaptability:
• Magnanimity:
• Perseverance:
• Perseverance:
• Impartiality and Non-Partisanship:
• Tolerance and compassion for the weaker section:
• Contribution to Society:
• Indian Thinkers Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian Thinkers Dr. S. Radhakrishnan:
• Indian Thinkers Rabindranath Tagore:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Dayanand Saraswati:
• Indian Thinkers Mahadeva Govinda Ranade:
• Indian Thinkers Sri Aurobindo:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Vivekananda:
• Indian Thinkers Sardar Patel:
• Indian Thinkers Buddha Bhim Rao Ambedkar:
• Indian Thinkers Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
• Indian Thinkers Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj:
• Indian Thinkers Mother Teresa:
• Indian Thinkers Amitabha Chowdhury:
• Indian Thinkers Aruna Roy:
• Indian Thinkers T. N. Seshan:
• Indian Thinkers E. Sreedharan:
• Administrative Thinkers Max Weber:
• Administrative Thinkers Elton Mayo:
• Administrative Thinkers Peter Drucker:
• Administrative Thinkers Chestar Barnard:
• Administrative Thinkers Mary Parker Follet:
• World Thinkers Plato:
• World Thinkers Aristotle:
• World Thinkers Socrates:
• World Thinkers Jeremy Bentham:
• World Thinkers JS Mill:
• World Thinkers Thomas Hobbes:
• World Thinkers John Locke:
• World Thinkers Jean Jacques Rousseau:
• World Thinkers John Rawls:
• World Thinkers Immanuel Kant:
• World Thinkers Carol Gilligan:
• World Thinkers Jean Paul Sartre:
• World Thinkers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel:
• World Thinkers Confucius:
• World Thinkers René Descartes:
• World Thinkers Karl Marx:
• World Thinkers Adam Smith:
• World Thinkers Thomas Aquinas:
• World Thinkers David Hume:
• World Thinkers Democritus:
• World Thinkers Galileo:
• World Thinkers Friedrich Nietzsche:
• World Thinkers Montesquieu:
• World Thinkers Voltaire:
• World Thinkers Thomas Jefferson:
• Indian & World Leaders Benjamin Franklin:
• Indian & World Leaders Martin Luther King:
• Indian & World Leaders Dalai Lama:
• Indian & World Leaders Nelson Mandela:
• Indian & World Leaders Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian & World Leaders Siddhartha Gautama:
• Indian & World Leaders Aung San Suu Kyi:
• Indian & World Leaders Swami Vivekanand:
• Indian & World Leaders Albert Einstein:
• Indian & World Leaders Abraham Lincoln:
• Indian & World Leaders Mother Teresa:
• Indian & World Leaders J L Nehru:
• Indian & World Leaders Lee Kuan Yew:
• Indian & World Leaders Abdul Kalam:
• Indian & World Leaders Henry Ford:
• Indian & World Leaders Muhammad Yunus:
• Indian & World Leaders Wangari Maathai:
• Indian & World Leaders Kofi Annan:
• Indian & World Leaders Lech Walesa:
• Indian & World Leaders Desmond Tutu:
• Indian & World Leaders Isaac Newton:
• Indian & World Leaders Elie Wiesel:
• Indian & World Leaders King Ashoka:
• Indian & World Leaders Sun Yat Sen:
• Components of Attitude Affective component:
• Components of Attitude Cognitive component:
• Components of Attitude Behavioral component:
• Functions of Attitude Adjustive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Ego-Defensive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Value-Expressive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Knowledge Function:
• Functions of Attitude Attitude Formation Model:
• Functions of Attitude Impact of Beliefs and Values:
• Functions of Attitude Group Influences:
• Functions of Attitude Social Influence:
• Functions of Attitude Persuasion Tactics:
• Functions of Attitude Tools of Persuasion:
• Functions of Attitude Moral Attitude formation:
• Functions of Attitude Political Attitude formation:
• Theories Associated with Emotional Intelligence:
• Can Emotional Intelligence be Developed?:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Awareness Cluster: Understanding Feelings and Accurate Self-Assessment:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Management Cluster: Managing Internal States, Impulses, and Resources:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Social Awareness Cluster: Reading People and Groups Accurately:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Relationship Management Cluster: Inducing Desirable Responses in Others:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence at Workplace:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Civil Services:
• Ethical Concerns in Public Institution:
• Ethical Concerns in Private Institutions:
• Ethical Dilemmas in Public and Private Institutions:
• Laws, Rules and Regulations as Source of Ethical Guidance:
• Accountability and Ethical Governance:
• Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance:
• Moral Judgments in International Relations:
• Ethical Relation in Funding:
• International Relations and concept of Moral Responsibility:
• Ethics in working of international organizations:
• What is Corporate Governance?:
• Models of Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Steps taken by World Bank for Good Corporate Governance:
• Norms for Corporate Government in India:
• Concept of business ethics:
• Concept of Public Service:
• Philosophical basis of Governance and Probity:
• Information Sharing, Transparency and Right to Information:
• Flaws in RTI and recommendations for improvement:
• Importance of vigilant citizens:
• Information sharing and participation:
• Importance of Code of ethics:
• Code of Ethics in Professions:
• Code of Conduct for Ministers; for Legislators; for Civil Servants; for Regulators and for the Judiciary:
• Components of a Citizen Charter:
• Steps in formulation of a Citizen’s Charter:
• Concept of Work Culture:
• The Indian Approach to Work:
• Methods of improving Work Culture:
• Quality of Service Delivery:
• Utilisation of Public Funds:
• Problems in Fund Release and Utilization:
• Parliamentary Control on Expenditure:
• Corruption in India: extent, dimension, and response:
• Corruption as a social evil:
• Probity in public life Corrupt practice among civil servants and official misconduct:
• Exposing corruption: Civil Society initiatives and role of Whistleblower Act:
• Tackling corruption: Role of government and institutions of governance:
• Controlling corruption: Various approaches and efficacy:
• Social and ethical angle:
• Different arguments related to Euthanasia:
• Conclusion:
• Case study:
• Issues:
• Ethical Issues:
• Concept of ethical surrogacy:
• Conclusion:
• Importance of sports:
• Ethical Issue: Need for sportsmanship:
• Ethical Issue: Doping:
• Ethical Issue: Discrimination and Sexual Harassment:
• Ethical Issue: Sports as a Business:
• Steps needed:
• Role of Media:
• Ethical Issues faced by Reporters:
• Trial by Media:
• Media Prejudice:
• Ethical Dilemma faced by Photojournalists:
• Digital Media Ethics:
• Paid News:
• Principles of Business Ethics:
• Dimensions related to Business Ethics in Organisation:
• Business Ethics and Corporate Governance:
• Journey from Philanthropy to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues in implementation of Business Ethics:
• Why are Economic Sanctions placed?:
• Ethics in Economic Sanctions:
• Conclusion:
• Why Migration occur?:
• Case study of Syria:
• Dilemmas related to Refugee crisis:
• Steps needed:
• What is Globalisation:
• Free trade in Globalised world:
• Issues with Newly developed trade patterns:
• Criticism against global regime:
• Way forward:
• Ethics and War theories:
• Evils of war:
• Linkage between Ethics and Environment:
• Theories related to Environmental ethics:
• Role of Individual:
• Issues related to Stem Cell:
• Issues related to cloning:
• Issues related to designer babies:
• Introduction:
• Issues of conducting research on animals:
• Issue of keeping animals as pets:
• Issue of Cruelty against animals:
• Conclusion:
• Ethical dimension:
• Ethical issue related to food additive:
• Law of abortion in India:
• Recent Supreme Court verdict:
• Ethical Issue: Health of Women vs. fetus:
• Justification for abortion:
• Argument against abortion:
• Abortion and women rights:
• Abortion and father rights:
• Honour killing is unethical:
• Role of khap panchayat:
• Why Marital Rape should and should not be criminalized?:
• What are the hurdles?:
• Labour:
• Rights of children:
• Child labour and company:
• Solution:
• Role of consumer:
• Juvenile justice system:
• Negative implications:
• Ethical issues:
• Issues faced:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Ethical principles in Public relationships:
• Linkage between Private relationships and Public relationships:
• Ecological Hierarchy:
• Scope of Ecology:
• Habitat & Ecological Niche:
• Deep vs Shallow Ecology:
• Ecological Principles:
• Ecological Community Structure and Characteristics of a Community:
• Ecological Community Stratification:
• Ecological Community Ecotones:
• Ecological Community Ecological Dominance:
• Ecological Community Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation:
• Ecological Community Periodicity:
• Ecological Community Turnover:
• Ecological Community Interdependence:
• Ecological Succession Types and Process of Succession:
• Ecological Succession Climax Community:
• Range of Tolerance, Maximum Range:
• Difference between Ecology:
• Environment and Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Definitions:
• The Structure/Components of Ecosystem:
• Abiotic Components:
• Functions and Properties of Ecosystem Biotic Components:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Flow of Energy in Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Trophic Levels:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Types & Significance of Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Web:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Models for Energy Flow:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Ecological Productivity:
• Ecological Pyramid:
• Biomagnifications:
• Biological Control:
• Organic Farming:
• Parts of a Bio Geochemical Cycle:
• Types of Biogeochemical Cycle:
• Carbon Cycle:
• Nitrogen Cycle:
• Phosphorus Cycle:
• Sulphur Cycle:
• Biome:
• Grasslands:
• Tundra:
• Deserts:
• Thar Desert:
• Mountain Biome:
• Aquatic Ecosystems:
• Basic facts about the ocean:
• Importance of the ocean:
• Zones of the ocean Marine life:
• Coral reefs:
• Coral reefs in India:
• Conserving coral reefs:
• Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Freshwater in India:
• Importance of lakes:
• National Lake Conservation Plan:
• Wetlands and their importance:
• Ramsar Convention:
• Ramsar Sites:
• Montreux Record:
• Extent and distribution of wetlands in India:
• Conserving the wetlands of India:
• Biodiversity:
• Important kinds of Biodiversity:
• Degree of Diversity in an Ecosystem Endemic species:
• Keystone species:
• Indicator species:
• Invasive species:
• Allopatric and sympatric speciation:
• Bioinformatics Biodiversity distribution:
• Megadivers Countries:
• Uses and values of Biodiversity:
• State of global Biodiversity:
• Threats to Biodiversity:
• Biodiversity Hotspots:
• Eco-regions:
• Role of traditional knowledge in biodiversity:
• Biopiracy:
• Extinction of species:
• Mass extinction:
• IUCN’s classification scheme:
• IUCN Red-List of Threatened Species:
• Level of biodiversity in India:
• Biogeographic classification of India:
• Ex-situ aid in-situ conservation:
• Seed Banks:
• Zoos in Biodiversity Conservation:
• Botanical Gardens:
• Protected areas:
• State of protected areas in the world:
• UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB):
• Characteristics of Biosphere Reserves:
• International Agreements for Biodiversity Conservation:
• Convention on Biological Diversity:
• Cartagena Protocol:
• Nagoya Protocol:
• Aichi Biodiversity Targets:
• Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas of India:
• Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of India:
• Global Tiger Initiative:
• Project Tiger:
• Project Elephant:
• Indian Rhino Vision:
• Recovery Programme for Critically Endangered Species:
• Use of indigenous knowledge for conserving biodiversity:
• Seed village:
• Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment:
• Effect of Housing on Environment:
• Effect of Power Generation on Environment:
• Effect of River Valley Projects:
• (Water Resource Projects) on Environment:
• Effect of Mining on Environment:
• Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment:
• Effect of Tourism on Environment:
• Water Cycle (Hydrological Cycle):
• Availability and Quality Aspects (groundwater depletion):
• Water-borne and Water-induced Diseases:
• Fluoride Problem in Drinking Water:
• Arsenic Problem in Drinking Water:
• Mining and Environment:
• Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining:
• Impact of Mining:
• Indirect Impact of Mining:
• International Laws on Mining:
• Main Act or Statute to regulate the impact of Indian Mining Sector:
• Sustainable Mining:
• Causes of Deforestation:
• Implications of Deforestation for Climate Change:
• Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India:
• Impact of Deforestation on Indian Monsoon:
• Impact of Deforestation on People:
• Deforestation Leads to Water and Soil Resources Loss and Flooding:
• Economical Impacts:
• Strategies for Reducing Deforestation:
• Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests:
• Legislations for Conservation of Forests using People Participation:
• Steps for Improving People Participation in Forest Resource Management:
• Use of Local Traditional Methods:
• Solid Waste:
• Hazardous Waste:
• E-Waste:
• Bio Medical Waste:
• Plastic Waste:
• Methods for Waste Management:
• Effects of Poor Waste Disposal:
• Landfill:
• Principles of Sustainability:
• Measurement of Sustainability or Sustainable Ethics or Equitable Utilisation of Natural Resource:
• Sustainable Lifestyle (Role of an individual in sustainable, development):
• Challenges to Sustainable Development:
• International Efforts to Achieve Sustainability:
• Air Pollution:
• Sources of Air Pollution:
• Effects of Air Pollution:
• Classification of Air Pollutant:
• Control Measures of Air Pollution:
• Air Pollution Disasters:
• Long Range Transport of Gaseous Air Pollutants:
• National Ambient Air Quality Standards:
• Water Pollution:
• Sources of Water Pollution:
• Types of Water Pollutants:
• Effects of Water Pollution:
• Water Quality Standards:
• Control of Water Pollution:
• Thermal Pollution:
• Sources of Thermal Pollution:
• Effects of Thermal Pollution:
• Control of Thermal Pollution:
• Soil Pollution or Land Degradation:
• Sources of Soil Pollution:
• Effects of Soil Pollution:
• Control Measures:
• Noise Pollution:
• Air-borne Diseases:
• Toxic Substances: Toxicant, Toxicity and Toxicology:
• Factors affecting toxicity:
• Carcinogens:
• Sources of Solid Waste:
• Effect of Solid Waste:
• Control Measures of Solid Waste:
• Solid Waste Management Rules:
• Hazardous Waste Management (HWM):
• Mangroves:
• Salient features of Mangroves:
• Importance of Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Mangroves under threats:
• Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection:
• Estuaries:
• Importance of estuaries:
• Threats to estuaries:
• Coral Reefs:
• Geographical Conditions Required:
• Uses of coral reefs:
• Conservation of coral reef:
• Steps for Coastal Ecosystem Management:
• Air Pollution:
• Report on Air Pollution:
• Bharat Stage Emission Standards:
• Polluters Pay Model:
• Household Air Pollution:
• Open Waste Burning and its Impact:
• Graded Response Action Plan on Pollution:
• UN Sets Limits on Global Airline Emissions:
• Waste Management:
• Biodegradable Plastics:
• Green Train Corridors:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management-Buffer Zone:
• Other News:
• Report of Parliamentary Committee on Forest Fires:
• Urban Forestry Scheme:
• Draft Notification to Regulate Pet Shops:
• Ban on Import of Animal Skin:
• River linking Project and Impact on:
• Environment:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Illegal Salt Mining and its Impact:
• India’s Wetland Report, 2016:
• Deep Sea Mining:
• Mass Coral Bleaching:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Government Body which Executes EIA:
• Environmental Effects Analysed under EIA:
• Process of EIA:
• EIA Ruling 1984:
• Environmental Laws: Provisions in the Indian Constitution towards Environmental Protection:
• Salient Features of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981*:
• Salient Features of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
• Salient features of Forest Conservation Act, I980:
• Salient Features of Wildlife Protection Act,1972:
• Salient Features of Environment (Protection) Act,1986:
• Role of Government in Environmental Protection:
• Pollution Control Boards:
• National Green Tribunal:
• Forest Survey of India:
• National Board for Wildlife:
• Ecomark Scheme:
• National Afforestation Program:
• National River Conservation Plan:
• National Mission for Clean Ganga:
• National Air Quality Index (AQI):
• National Action:
• Programme to Combat Desertification:
• UJALA Scheme:
• Bharat Stage Norms:
• UNEP:
• UNDP:
• Centre for Biological Diversity:
• WWF for Nature:
• IUCN - Red List:
• Birdlife International:
• International Conventions/Protocols & their Objectives:
• Green House Effect and Global Warming:
• Global Climate Change: International Efforts to Control Global Warming or Global Climate Change:
• Ozone Layer Depletion/Ozone Hole:
• Acid Rain:
• El Nino:
• La Nina:
• Pollution in metros and climate change:
• Real estate boom and environment degradation:
• Urban Heat Island:
• Polythene bags and pollution:
• Methane generation from waste:
• Agriculture Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions:
• Monoculture Practice Impacts Biodiversity:
• Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers:
• Soil-related effects:
• Fertilizers’ Effect on the Environment:
• Impact of livestock on environment:
• Impact of use of Pesticides on Environment:
• Impact of GM crop on Environment:
• Emission of Methane from agricultural practices:
• Sustainable Agriculture Techniques:
• Health impacts of global warming:
• Mosquito-borne diseases:
• Ozone depletion and human health:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Climate Change Indicators: WMO report:
• IPCC 5th Assessment Report:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• International Solar Alliance (ISA):
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20):
• Kigali Agreement:
• Climate Change Performance Index:
• Man-Animal Conflicts in India:
• Poaching activities in India:
• Controlling wildlife crimes using sniffer dogs:
• Draft on animal cruelty:
• Formation of Tiger Reserves: Critical Analysis:
• International treaties for wildlife conservation:
• Use of drones for wildlife conservation:
• Indoor Air Pollution and its impact:
• Impact of Particulate Matter:
• Smog and its impact:
• Plastic Pollution:
• Light Pollution:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management:
• E-waste Management Rules 2016:
• Groundwater contamination:
• Bharat Stage Norm:
• What is the Polluters Pay Model?:
• Paris Agreement:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• Kigali Agreement:
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment):
• International Solar Alliance:
• Programmes and Policies Initiated for Mitigating Climate Change:
• International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Concept of Green Bond:
• Green Climate Fund:
• Carbon Tax Feasibility in India:
• Concept of Green Building:
• Climate Change and Cities:
• Ethical issue involved in climate change:
• Climate change and its impact on Health:
• National Solar Mission:
• Status of Hydro Power energy in India:
• Status of Wind Energy in India:
• Green Transportation:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act:
• Draft National Wildlife Action Plan:
• Draft Wetland Management Rules:
• Initiatives to enhance green cover:
• Policy on Promotion of City Compost:
• Living status to Rivers:
• National Hydrology Project:
• Pollution Control Board: Analysis:
• National Green Tribunal: Analysis:
• Forest Survey of India:
• Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee:
• Traditional Knowledge Digital Library:
• T S R Subramanian Panel Report:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Melting of Antarctica and its Impact:
• River linking project and its Impact:
• Public Participation for Environmental Conservation:
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• Periodization of Indian pre history:
• Sources of prehistory:
• Stone ageo Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC):
• Stone age Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC):
• Stone age Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC):
• Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC):
• Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC):
• Impact of Iron:
• Neolithic Phase:
• Chalcolithic Phase:
• Early Iron Phase:
• Geographical Distribution and Characteristics:
• Major cities:
• Town Planning:
• Harappan Trade:
• Agriculture:
• Domestication of animals:
• Crafts:
• Religion:
• Harappan Pottery:
• Weights and Measures:
• Script and Language:
• Images:
• Decline of Harappan Culture:
• Original Home of Aryans:
• Features of Aryan Culture:
• Vedic Texts:
• Sources for Reconstructing :
• Vedic Society and Culture:
• Geography of the Rig Vedic Period:
• Geography of the later Vedic Phases:
• Economic Conditions:
• Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy:
• Social Organisation and Varna System:
• Religion and Thought:
• Formation of states:
• The Sixteen Mahajanapadas:
• Republics:
• Rise of urban centres:
• Haryanka dynasty:
• Shishunaga dynasty:
• Nanda dynasty:
• Chandragupta and Bindusara:
• Megasthenes:
• Asoka and His Successors:
• Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites:
• Asoka’ a Dhamma:
• Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art:
• The Arthasastra:
• Society Evolution of Jatis:
• Sangam Texts-and Society:
• Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties:
• Foreign Dynasties:
• Commercial Contacts with the Outside World:
• Schools of Art:
• Jainism:
• Buddhism:
• Sources of Gupta Rule:
• Political history of Guptas:
• Fahien:
• Gupta Administration:
• Gupta Culture:
• Urban centres in Gupta period:
• Economic Conditions:
• Sources for Harsha’s Period:
• Early life of Harsha:
• Harsha’s Administration:
• Important Officials of the empire:
• Economy under Harsha:
• Society:
• Religion:
• The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225):
• The Pallavas (AD 330–796):
• The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190):
• The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323):
• The Timurids:
• The Timurid-Uzbek and Uzbek-Iran Conflict and Babur:
• Babur’s Advance towards India:
• Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur:
• The Battle of Panipat:
• Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat:
• Struggle with Rana Sanga:
• Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans:
• Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India:
• Humayun and the Afghans:
• Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah:
• The Gujarat Campaign:
• The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan:
• The Surs:
• Sher Shah’s Early Life:
• Social and Political Background of Bihar and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power.:
• The Sur Empire (1540-56):
• Contributions of Sher Shah:
• Conflict with the Afghans - Hemu:
• Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s:
• Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles:
• Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) - Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India:
• Relations with the Rajputs - Growth of a Composite Ruling Class:
• Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West:
• Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty:
• Structure of Government, Central and Provincial - the Vikalat, Central Ministries, Provincial Government,:
• District and Local Government:
• The Working of Government - the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System. The Mansabdari System and the Army:
• Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms:
• The Early Phase (1556-73):
• The Second Phase (1573-80) - the Ibadat Khana:
• Debates - the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox:
• Ulama - Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants:
• Third or Final Phase - Din-i-Ilahi :
• State Policies and religious toleration:
• The Deccani States upto 1595:
• Mughal Advance towards the Deccan:
• Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar:
• Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27):
• Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal:
• Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda:
• Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57):
• Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States:
• Akbar and the Uzbeks:
• The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran:
• Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign:
• Mughal - Persian Relations - the Last Phase:
• Jahangir’s Accession - his Early Difficulties:
• Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Mewar, East India and Kangra:
• Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’:
• The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan:
• Jahangir as a Ruler:
• State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century:
• Shah Jahan - Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire:
• Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System:
• War of Succession:
• Religious Policy: First Phase (1658-79):
• Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu:
• Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707):
• Territorial Consolidation and:
• Expansion of Empire - North India:
• Popular Revolts - Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs:
• Breach with Marwar and Mewar:
• Rise of the Marathas - Early Career of Shivaji :
• Treaty of Purandar - the Agra Visit:
• Shivaji’s Swaraj – Administration and Achievements:
• Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87):
• Marathas and the Deccan (1687-1707):
• Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis:
• Rural Society:
• Towns and Town Life:
• Artisans and Master-Craftsmen:
• Women:
• Servants and Slaves:
• Standard of Living:
• The Ruling Classes - Nobility, Rural Gentry:
• The Middle Strata:
• The Commercial Classes:
• Inland Trade:
• Overseas Trade - Role of Foreign Trading companies - Position of Indian merchant’s over-land Trade:
• The Mughal State and Commerce:
• Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century:
• Religion- Hindu Religion, Sikh Religion, Islam:
• Fine Arts - Architecture, Painting, Language and Literature, Music:
• Science and Technology:
• Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle:
• For Wizarat - Rajput Affairs - Marathas:
• Deccan - Accentuation of the Party Struggle:
• Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13):
• The Sayyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48):
• The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion:
• The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa:
• The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
• First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);:
• Third Battle of Panipat:
• Later Mughals:
• Regional powers in 18th Century:
• The British conquest of India:
• The wars during British conquest of India:
• British Administration before 1857:
• Indian National Movement (1858-1905):
• Early Nationalists and Swadeshi Movement:
• Government of India Act 1909:
• Home rule league movement:
• Montague’s statement – Aug 1917:
• Emergence of Gandhi – as a mass leader:
• Khilafat & non-Cooperation Movement (NCM):
• Swaraj party:
• Revolutionary Terrorism phase II (1920’s):
• Simon Commission and Nehru report:
• Civil Disobedience Movement:
• Round table conference:
• Poona pact:
• Government of India Act 1935:
• Tripuri session – 1939:
• August offer:
• Individual Satyagraha 1940-41:
• Popular struggles in the princely states:
• 2nd World War and Nationalist response:
• Rise of Communalism:
• Wavell plan:
• Cabinet Mission Plan:
• Mountbatten plan:
• Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement:
• Civil Rebellions during British:
• Tribal movements during British period:
• Peasant’s movement during British period:
• Working class Movement (1850-1900):
• Growth of communalism:
• Left and communist trends in National Movement:
• Press and education during British period:
• Role of women in Freedom Struggle:
• Governor generals of India:
• Viceroys of India:
• Important persons:
• Important newspaper/journals:
• Congress sessions:
• Constitutional provisions related to State formation:
• Factors that led to merger:
• Accession of the princely states:
• Accession of States under France and Portuguese:
• Accession of Sikkim:
• Rehabilitation of the Refugees:
• Federal crisis:
• Regional aspirations, insurgencies and areas of tension:
• Accommodation and national integration:
• Constitutional position and language policy:
• Language and regionalism:
• Recent controversy due to rise of Hindi:
• Issues & Present Status:
• Policy consolidation:
• Issues & challenges:
• Women movements:
• Government policy response and legislation:
• Governmental schemes:
• Caste practices in India:
• Ambedkar Movement:
• Constitutional provisions:
• Recent government initiatives for emancipation of Scheduled Castes:
• Issues of Manual Scavenging:
• Secularism:
• Causes of Communalism in India:
• Consequences of the communalism and social consolidation:
• Operational Inefficiency:
• Government initiatives:
• Planning in India:
• Industry:
• Service sector:
• Current challenges facing the Indian economy:
• Agriculture:
• Journey through Five Year Plans:
• Land Reforms:
• Post Green Revolution Agricultural Issues:
• Agrarian Movements:
• Achievements in Agriculture Since Independence:
• Recent Challenges:
• Industrial development since independence:
• Public sector since independence:
• Sectoral Development:
• Private Sector since Independence:
• Industrial Policy since Independence:
• Make in India:
• Impact of New Economic Policy:
• India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology:
• Institutional Framework for Science and Technology Development:
• Science and Technology in Pre- Reform Period:
• Impact of Economic Reform on the:
• Science and Technology in India: New Policy Initiatives in the S&T:
• Science and Technology in India: Agenda of the Skill Training:
• Disintegration of the Feudal System:
• Renaissance:
• Humanism:
• Art and Architecture:
• Literature:
• Science:
• Reformation etc.:
• Explorations, Discovery, Trade:
• Colonization – Rise of Nation State:
• The English Revolution:
• Causes:
• The revolution in France:
• France under Napoleon:
• Impact of revolution:
• Significance of revolution:
• Rise of the nation- state system:
• Unification of Italy:
• Unification of Germany:
• Colonialism:
• The age of Imperialism (1870-1914):
• Imperialism in Asia:
• Analysis of Colonialism:
• Foundation of American Colonies:
• The Independence of United States of America:
• The American Revolutionary War:
• What was the impact of American Revolution?:
• Political Effects of the Revolution:
• How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?:
• US Civil War:
• Impact of Civil War on USA:
• Global Impact of US Civil War:
• Impact on India:
• Major causes of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Analysis of major events of the war:
• Consequences of World War I:
• Aftermath of World War I:
• League of Nations:
• Major events in pre-revolution Russia:
• Causes:
• Course of revolution:
• Consequences:
• Aftermath of the war:
• Post-Lenin Russia:
• The Great Depression:
• The Great Depression- an economic perspective:
• Rise of Fascism in Italy:
• Rise of Nazism in Germany:
• Soviet Union (USSR):
• Foundations of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Aftermath of war:
• Analysis of the war:
• Decolonization phase:
• Democratic reforms in Middle East:
• Arab nationalism:
• Israel:
• Reasons:
• Development of Cold War (1945-1953):
• To what extent was there a thaw after 1953?:
• Nuclear Arms Race and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962):
• Global issues since 1991:
• Integration of Europe:
• European integration- a timeline:
• Rise of global Islamic terrorism:
• Rise of China:
• Capitalism (concept, types and example):
• Communism (concept, types, example):
• Relevance of capitalism in present era:
• Sculptures of Harappan Civilization:
• Sculptures of Mauryan Age:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Jain Sculptures:
• Buddhist Sculpture:
• Gupta Sculpture:
• Medieval School of Sculpture:
• Modern Indian Sculpture:
• Harappan Period:
• Mauryan Architecture:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Gupta Period:
• Temples of Khajuraho:
• Temples of Odisha:
• Temples of Gwalior:
• Temples of Gujarat:
• Temples of Rajasthan:
• Temples of Bengal:
• Temples of Assam:
• Temples of Himachal Pradesh:
• Temples of Jammu and Kashmir:
• Pallava Period:
• Chola Period:
• Pandya Temples:
• Vijayanagar Period:
• NayakaTemples:
• Temples of Kerala:
• Vesara Style:
• Hoysala Style:
• Rashtrakuta Period:
• Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate):
• Provincial Style:
• Mughal Style:
• Sikh Style of Architecture:
• Rajput Architecture:
• Salient features:
• European Influence:
• Indo-Saracenic Architecture:
• Post-Independence Period:
• Tradition of Mural Paintings in India:
• Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India:
• Paintings in the Deccan:
• Rajput School of Painting:
• Pahari School of Painting:
• Miniature Painting in South India:
• Regional Paintings:
• Modern Paintings:
• Contemporary Paintings:
• Ochre: Colored Pottery (OCP):
• Black and Red Ware (BRW):
• Painted Grey Ware (PGW):
• Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW):
• Glazed and Unglazed Pottery:
• Main Pillars of Indian Music:
• Forms of Indian Music:
• Musical Instruments:
• Institutions Related to Music:
• Concept of Dance in India:
• Concept of Ashta Nayika:
• Eight Classical Dance Forms in India:
• Folk Dances:
• Modern Dances:
• Genesis of Martial Arts:
• Forms of Traditional Martial Arts:
• Classical Sanskrit Theatre:
• Regional Theatre:
• Modern Theatre:
• Renaissance of Indian Theatre:
• String Puppets:
• Shadow Puppets:
• Rod Puppets:
• Glove puppets:
• Modern Puppetry:
• Tribal Puppetry:
• Cinema in India:
• History of Indian Cinema:
• Classification of Indian Cinema Film:
• Music of India:
• Pre-Vedic Religion:
• Hinduism:
• Buddhism:
• Jainism:
• Sikhism:
• Islam:
• Christianity:
• Zoroastrianism:
• Judaism:
• Philosophy in India:
• Bhakti Movement:
• Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation:
• Other Saints of Bhakti Movement:
• Maharashtra Dharma:
• Sufism:
• Sanskrit Literature:
• Pali Literature:
• Prakrit Literature:
• Tamil Literature:
• Telugu Literature:
• Malayalam Literature:
• Kannada Literature:
• Odia Literature:
• Assamese Literature:
• Bengali Literature:
• Gujarati Literature:
• Rajasthani Literature:
• Punjabi Literature:
• Marathi Literature:
• Hindi Literature:
• Persian Literature:
• Urdu Literature:
• Indian Handicrafts:
• Indian Universities:
• Personalities Related to Culture:
• Places of Cultural Interest:
• Fairs and Festivals in India:
• Cultural Institutions in India:
• Awards and Honors Associated with Culture:
• The Calendar:
• The Eras:
• Science and Technology in Ancient India:
• UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India:
• Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage:
• The origin of the Earth Early Theories:
• The origin of the Earth Modern Theories – BBT:
• The origin of the Earth Star Formation:
• The origin of the Earth Formation of Planets:
• The origin of the Earth Solar System:
• The Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure (5 layers):
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Lithosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Atmosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Hydrosphere:
• Geological History of the Earth:
• Earth Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians:
• Earth Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects:
• Earth Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects:
• Earth Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar:
• Earth Eclipses - Solar, Lunar:
• Origin of Life:
• Geological Time Scale:
• Interior of the Earth Direct Sources :
• Interior of the Earth Indirect Sources (EarthQuake Waves, Volcanoes):
• Interior of the Earth :
• Interior of the Earth Crust:
• Interior of the Earth Mantle:
• Interior of the Earth Core:
• Geology Minerals:
• Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust:
• Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz,:
• Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine:
• Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak:
• Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity:
• Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non-Ferrous:
• Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement:
• Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals):
• Petrology:
• Rocks & landforms:
• Rocks & Soils:
• 3 Family of Rocks:
• Igneous:
• Sedimentary:
• Metamorphic:
• Rock Cycle:
• Earthquakes:
• Waves: P, S, Body, Surface,:
• Shadow Zone:
• Types of Earthquakes:
• Effects:
• Frequency:
• Locating an Epicenter:
• Volcano:
• Types Shield:
• Types Composite:
• Types Caldera:
• Types Flood Basalt:
• Types Mid Ocean Ridge:
• Landforms (intrusive):
• Batholiths:
• Laccoliths:
• Lapoliths:
• Phacoliths:
• Sills:
• Dykes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Earth’s Surface Exogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Endogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Gradation, Degradation & Aggradation:
• Geomorphic Process:
• Endogenic Process:
• Diastrophism:
• Orogenic:
• Epeirogenic:
• Earthquakes:
• Plate movements:
• Volcanism:
• Exogenic Forces:
• Denudation Processes:
• Weathering:
• Mass movements:
• Erosion Transportation & Deposition:
• Distribution of Continents & Oceans:
• Theories:
• Continental Drift Theory:
• Alfred Wegner 1912:
• Pangea, Panthalasa:
• Laurasia, Gondwanaland:
• Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory:
• Jigsaw Fit:
• Rocks of Same age across oceans:
• Tillite:
• Placer Deposits:
• Distribution of Fossils:
• Forces of Drifting:
• Pole Fleeing Force:
• Tidal Force:
• Post Drift Studies:
• Convectional Current Theory:
• Mapping of the Ocean Floor:
• Continents – plate Tectonics:
• Lithospheric Plates:
• Major Plate:
• Minor Plates:
• Plate Boundaries:
• Divergent:
• Convergent:
• Transform:
• Rates of Plate Movements:
• Force of plate movements:
• Indian Plate:
• Movement from 71 million years ago till Today:
• Landforms and their Evolution:
• Causes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Agents:
• Geomorphic Agents Erosional or Destructional:
• Geomorphic Agents Depositional or Constructional:
• Agents and their Impacts Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents:
• Winds One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts:
• Winds Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact:
• Winds Erosional landforms:
• Pediments and Pedi plains:
• Playas:
• Deflation Hollows and Caves:
• Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks:
• Depositional Landforms Barchans:
• Depositional Landforms Seif:
• Depositional Landforms Parabolic:
• Depositional Landforms Transverse:
• Depositional Landforms Longitudinal:
• Running Water Humid Regions:
• Running Water Two Components:
• Overland Flow – Sheet:
• Linear Flow – Streams:
• Stages:
• Youth Mature Old:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Valleys:
• Rills:
• Gullies:
• Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary):
• Potholes & Plunge pools:
• Incised or entrenched meanders:
• River Terraces – paired & unpaired:
• Depositional Landforms Alluvial Fans:
• Depositional Landforms Delta:
• Depositional Landforms Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars:
• Depositional Landforms Meanders, Slip off bank,:
• Depositional Landforms Undercut bank:
• Depositional Landforms Oxbow lake:
• Depositional Landforms Braided Channels:
• Ground Water (Karst Topography) :
• Permeable Rocks:
• Percolation:
• Bedding Plains:
• Limestone and Dolomite Regions:
• Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Pools-Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements:
• Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels:
• Depositional landforms Stalactites :
• Depositional landforms Stalagmites:
• Depositional landforms Pillar Columns:
• Glaciers:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cirque of Tarn Lakes:
• Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete:
• Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Glacial Tills:
• Moraines:
• Eskers:
• Outwash Plains:
• Drumlins:
• Waves and Currents:
• High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cliffs:
• Terraces:
• Caves:
• Stacks:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Beaches and Dunes:
• Bars Barriers Spits:
• Weathering:
• Weather over Earth Materials:
• Factors:
• Geological:
• Climatic:
• Topographic:
• Vegetative:
• Major Processes:
• Chemical:
• Physical or Mechanical:
• Biological:
• Chemical – Forces Chemical Action:
• Solution:
• Carbonation:
• Hydration:
• Oxidation & Reduction:
• Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure:
• Unloading & Expansion:
• Temperature changes and Expansion:
• Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging:
• Salt Weathering:
• Biological Weathering:
• Burrowing:
• Wedging:
• Plant Roots:
• Effects of Weathering:
• Exfoliation (Flaking)– Exfoliation:
• Domes, Tors:
• Significance of Weathering:
• Soil Formation:
• Biomes and Biodiversity:
• Leaching / Enrichment:
• Mass Movements Activating causes:
• Mass Movements Forms of movement – Heave:
• Mass Movements Flow Slide:
• Mass Movements 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides:
• Landforms across the world: Rivers and lakes:
• Landforms across the world: Mountain and Peaks:
• Landforms across the world: Plateaus:
• Composition:
• Gases:
• Water Vapour:
• Dust Particles:
• Structure:
• Exosphere:
• Thermosphere:
• Mesosphere:
• Stratosphere:
• Troposphere:
• Altitude vs Temperature:
• Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature:
• Insolation:
• Aphelion and Perihelion:
• Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth:
• Day Season Year:
• Rotation on Axis, Angle of:
• Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day:
• Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.:
• Heat Balance:
• Heating and cooling of atmosphere:
• Conduction:
• Convection:
• Advection:
• Terrestrial Radiation:
• Heat Budget of the Planet Earth:
• Macro Budget:
• Albedo:
• Shortwave Radiation:
• Long wave Earth Radiation:
• Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface:
• Temperature:
• Factors controlling T distribution:
• Distribution of T Month of January-July:
• Range of T Month of January-July:
• Inversion of Temperature:
• Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems:
• Atmospheric Pressure:
• Vertical variation of pressure:
• Horizontal distribution of pressure:
• World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure:
• Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the:
• WIND:
• Pressure Gradient Force:
• Frictional Force:
• Coriolis Force:
• Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation):
• General Circulation of the Atmosphere Pattern of Planetary Winds:
• Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating:
• Emergence of Pressure Belts:
• Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun:
• Distribution of continents & Oceans:
• Rotation of the Earth:
• Circulation:
• Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell:
• Seasonal Wind:
• Local Wind:
• Land and Sea Breezes:
• Mountain and Valley winds:
• AIR MASS – fronts:
• ExtraTropical Cyclone:
• Thunderstorms:
• Tornadoes:
• Water in the Atmosphere:
• Water Vapour:
• Precipitation:
• Humidity – Absolute and Relative:
• Saturation – Dew Point:
• Evaporation and Condensation:
• Dew:
• Frost:
• Fog & Mist:
• Clouds:
• Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus:
• High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus:
• Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus:
• Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus:
• Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus:
• Precipitation:
• Rainfall Snowfall Sleet Hail Hailstones:
• Types of Rainfall:
• Conventional:
• Orographic:
• Cyclonic:
• World Distribution of Rainfall:
• World Climate:
• The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate:
• The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical:
• Marine Climates:
• The Savanna or Sudan Climate:
• The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates:
• The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate:
• The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate:
• The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate:
• The Arctic or Polar Climate:
• Water on the Surface of the Earth Hydrological Cycle:
• Component:
• Processes:
• Oceans:
• Oceans Relief of the Ocean floor:
• Oceans 4 divisions of the ocean floor:
• Continental Shelf:
• Continental Slope:
• Deep sea plain:
• Oceanic deep and Trenches:
• Minor relief features:
• Mid oceanic ridges:
• Seamount:
• Submarine canyons:
• Guy outs:
• Atoll:
• Temperature of the Ocean Water:
• Vertical:
• Spatial:
• Factors affecting Temperature Distribution:
• Latitude:
• Unequal distribution of land & Water :
• Prevailing wind:
• Ocean Currents:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution Thermocline:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution 3 layers:
• Salinity of the Ocean Water:
• Factors affecting salinity:
• Evaporation and precipitation:
• Fresh water flow from rivers:
• Wing:
• Ocean currents:
• Horizontals distribution of salinity:
• Vertical Distribution of salinity:
• Density of Ocean Waters:
• Movements of ocean Water:
• Factors influencing Movement:
• Temperature:
• Salinity:
• Density:
• Sun Moon winds:
• Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents:
• Waves:
• Motion of waves and water molecules:
• Characteristics Of WAVE:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Crest and Trough:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Height:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Amplitude:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Period:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Length:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Speed:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Frequency:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Tides:
• Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides:
• Tidal currents:
• Types of Tides:
• Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed:
• Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides:
• Importance of Tides:
• Ocean Currents:
• Influenced by 2 forces:
• Primary Force that initiates the movement:
• Heating of solar energy:
• Wind:
• Gravity:
• Coriolis force:
• Secondary force that influence the currents to flow:
• Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots:
• Types of ocean currents Surface currents & Deep-water currents based on Depth:
• Types of ocean currents Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature:
• Major Ocean currents of the World:
• Effects of Ocean Currents:
• Underground water resource:
• Surface water resources:
• Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources by ma:
• Oceanic water resources: Main features of ocean:
• Utilization of oceans by man:
• Water consumption patterns:
• Water pollution:
• Conservation of water resources:
• Techniques of water conservation:
• Soil Characteristics:
• Soil Factors Responsible for Soil Formation:
• Soil Stages of Soil Formation:
• Soil Forming Processes:
• Soil Profiles and Horizons:
• Soil Classification:
• Soil Erosion and Conservation:
• Vegetation resources Types of natural vegetation:
• Vegetation resources Forests:
• Vegetation resources Significance of forests:
• Economic significance, Ecological significance:
• Cultural significance:
• Factors of forest development:
• Extent of forest cover:
• Classification of forests Grasslands:
• Classification of forests Desert vegetation:
• Classification of forests Tundra Vegetation:
• Economic utilization of forests:
• Deforestation in tropical forests:
• Deforestation in temperate forests:
• Deforestation Rate and extent of deforestation:
• Deforestation Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation:
• Deforestation Indirect deforestation:
• Deforestation Underlying causes of deforestation:
• Conservation of forests Forest conservation strategies:
• Conservation of forests Reforestation:
• Conservation of forests Monoculture plantation:
• Conservation of forests Afforestation:
• Types of forestry Social forestry:
• Types of forestry Agroforestry:
• Concept of Human Resources:
• Population Distribution:
• Factors of population distribution Physical Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Socio Cultural Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Demographic Factors:
• World Population Distribution Ecumene:
• World Population Distribution Non-ecumene:
• Continent wise distribution of Population:
• Density of population:
• Pattern of Population density:
• Population Increase (Growth) in the World:
• Causes of Rapid Increase in Population:
• Present Trend:
• Future Projection:
• Determinants of Population Growth:
• Natural Increase:
• Characteristic of Population Age Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Population Pyramids:
• Characteristic of Population Sex Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Literacy:
• Theories of population growth Malthusian theory:
• Theories of population growth Marxian theory:
• Theories of population growth Demographic transition theory:
• Optimum population Over-population:
• Optimum population Under-population:
• Population problems Population problems of developing countries:
• Population problems Population problems of developed countries:
• Population problems Population dilemma of Europe:
• Population Policies: of China, of India:
• Various types of rural settlements:
• Relationship between house types with relief, climate and building materials:
• Basic Feature and Pattern of India’s Urbanization:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Rural Urban Migration:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Emergence of Slums:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Transport:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Waste Disposal:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Electronic Waste:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Poverty:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Bill, 2013:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Inclusive Cities/Smart cities:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Recent government programmes::
• Migration:
• Displacement:
• Importance of the Rehabilitation Policy:
• Urban settlements: types:
• Urbanization process in India.:
• Morphology of urban settlements:
• Town planning and patterns of rural settlement:
• Settlement types of the world:
• Migration: Push factors and pull factors:
• Emigration during colonial, post-independent and post-liberalisation period:
• Internal versus world migration:
• Functional classification of cities:
• Difference between boundaries and frontiers, their classification:
• Rural urban fringe characteristics, advantages, problems:
• National urbanization policy:
• Principles of urban planning:
• Land cover transformation:
• Factors affecting rural settlements, their types and patterns:
• Cities – hierarchical classification, morphological classification:
• Literacy:
• Sex ratio:
• Family Planning:
• Old Age:
• Age Structure:
• Density:
• Population growth:
• Census terminology:
• Land resource:
• Land-use:
• Land capability classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Basic terms related to Agriculture:
• Performance of the agriculture sector:
• Types of farming in India:
• Dry zone farming:
• Organic farming:
• Cropping seasons in India:
• Cropping Pattern in India:
• Agriculture regionalization:
• Infrastructure factors: Seeds;:
• Fertilizers; Irrigation:
• Land use pattern in India:
• Institutional Factors as land reform:
• Horticulture sector in India:
• Agricultural revolutions:
• Agricultural labourers:
• Price Policy for Agriculture:
• Agricultural marketing:
• Agricultural Insurance:
• Agricultural Census:
• Major schemes in agricultural sector:
• National Policy for farmers:
• Impact of climate change on agriculture:
• What is sustainable agriculture?:
• Use of IT in agriculture:
• Agriculture Issues and Challenges:
• Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth:
• Wheat:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Types of cultivation:
• Production patternInternational trade:
• Rice:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Methods of cultivation:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Maize (Corn):
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Barley:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Oats:
• Rye:
• Beverages:
• Tea:
• Condition of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Coffee:
• Types of coffee:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Cocoa:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Tobacco:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Fibre Crops:
• Cotton:
• Varieties of cotton:
• Cotton Conditions of growth:
• Cotton Production pattern:
• Cotton International trade:
• Jute:
• Jute Conditions of growth:
• Jute Production pattern:
• Jute International trade:
• Jute Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp:
• Jute Abaca, Henequen:
• Jute Sisal:
• Raw Silk:
• Raw Silk Production pattern:
• Raw Silk International trade:
• Natural Rubber:
• Natural Rubber Other sources of rubber:
• Natural Rubber Plantations in South-east Asia:
• Natural Rubber Production pattern:
• Natural Rubber International trade:
• Sugarcane:
• Sugarcane Conditions of growth:
• Sugarcane Production pattern:
• Sugarcane International trade:
• Sugarcane Sugar Beet - Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• Sugar industry:
• Sugar consumption:
• International trade:
• Types of minerals: Metallic minerals:
• Non-metallic mineral:
• Distribution of minerals and mining regions:
• Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore:
• Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous:
• Manganese:
• Chromium:
• Nickel:
• Tungsten:
• Antimony:
• Copper:
• Bauxite and Aluminium:
• Zinc; Lead:
• Tin:
• Precious metals: Gold:
• Silver:
• Platinum:
• Mineral chemicals:
• Mineral chemicals Mica:
• Mineral chemicals Potash:
• Mineral chemicals Phosphate:
• Mineral chemicals Nitrates:
• Mineral chemicals Sulphur:
• Conservation of mineral resources:
• Classification of energy:
• Production of conventional energy:
• General trends of energy production and consumption:
• Reserves and sources of energy:
• Coal Nature and origin of coal:
• Constituents and kinds of coal:
• Coal fields and coal production:
• By products of coal:
• Conservation of Coal Petroleum:
• Petroleum:
• Nature and properties of petroleum:
• Petroleum Origin and recovery:
• Petroleum Exploration:
• Petroleum refining:
• Petroleum reserves:
• Producing areas:
• Consumption of petroleum:
• International trade:
• OPEC and its role in oil trade:
• Natural gas: Reserves and Production:
• Hydro-electricity:
• Advantages of hydro-electricity:
• Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity:
• Distribution of potential hydro-power:
• Hydro-electric power generation:
• Atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Atomic: source minerals: Uranium:
• World distribution of uranium:
• Production of uranium:
• Thorium:
• Production of atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Nuclear energy: the energy of future:
• Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy:
• Solar energy:
• Wind energy:
• Geothermal power:
• Tidal energy:
• Wave energy:
• Biomass energy:
• Alternate Energy Sources:
• Hydrogen as a Fuel for Future or Hydrogen as an Alternative Energy Source:
• Microbial Fuel Cell:
• Energy Context with Respect to Indian Scenario:
• Energy Plantation:
• Energy crisis:
• Industrial development:
• Iron and Steel Industry :
• Process of iron and steel production:
• Location of iron and steel industry:
• Early localization:
• Development of iron manufacture:
• Distribution of iron and steel industry:
• Global steel production:
• International trade:
• Growth potential of the steel industry:
• Textile Industry:
• Cotton textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Recent trends in localization:
• Distribution and production of cotton textiles:
• Woolen textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture:
• Silk textile manufacturing:
• Synthetic (artificial) silk industry::
• Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics.:
• Engineering Industries:
• Machine tools and machines: Areas of production:
• Industrial machinery: Textile machinery:
• Other industrial machinery:
• Agricultural machinery:
• Manufacturing of transport equipment:
• Automobile industry:
• Railway car and locomotive industry:
• Shipbuilding:
• Recent trends:
• Aircrafts industry:
• Chemical Industry:
• Classes of chemicals: Branches of chemical industry:
• Heavy chemical industry:
• Rise Production of acids and alk:
• Production of acids and alkalis:
• Rise of chemical industry:
• Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers:
• Phosphate fertilizers:
• Potash fertilizers:
• Explosives:
• Glass industry: Production of glass:
• Agro-industries:
• Synthetic rubber industry:
• Pulp and paper industry: Essential:
• conditions for pulp production:
• Production of paper and paper board:
• Newsprint:
• International trade:
• Salient features of pulp and paper industry:
• Cement industry:
• Distribution of cement industry:
• Recent trends: Main global competitors:
• Petroleum refining industry: Localization:
• Site selection of petroleum refineries:
• History of oil refineries:
• World pattern of oil refining:
• Petroleum products:
• Industrial Regions:
• Characteristics of industrial regions:
• Delimitation of an industrial region:
• Principal industrial regions of the world:
• Industrial regions of Anglo America-USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR:
• Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns:
• Features of Indian Society:
• Changes within Indian society and their repercussions:
• Causes of changes:
• Indian society today:
• What is diversity?:
• Types of diversities in India:
• Can diversity be equated with difference?:
• The unity in diversity- a reality or a chimera:
• Some examples:
• Manner of reconciliation:
• Women’s organizations in Indian history:
• Types of women’s organizations:
• Level of penetration:
• Women’s organization – a ray of hope:
• Few case studies:
• Problems faced by women’s organizations:
• Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same:
• Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institutions:
• Poverty:
• Concept of development:
• Sen vs Bhagwati model:
• Crisis of development:
• Certain case studies:
• Government’s initiatives and the five year plans:
• Role of civil society organizations:
• What is the meaning of globalization?:
• Kinds of impact of globalization–economic, political, developmental and socio-cultural:
• Is the impact solely positive or negative:
• Meaning and concept of social empowerment:
• Why do we need social empowerment?:
• Specific sections for whom social empowerment is the life blood:
• Social empowerment through the five year plans:
• Government’s initiatives for empowerment:
• Empowerment in reality and India’s experience:
• Other approaches /players/tools for social empowerment and some case studies on the same:
• Meaning and concept of communalism:
• Historicity of communalism:
• Recent incidents:
• Role of third parties in inciting/perpetrating communalism:
• Communalism under the law:
• Can communalism be eradicated from the Indian society completely?:
• Meaning and concept of secularism:
• Secularism through the vantage point of Indian Constitution:
• Comparisons of models Indian & Western:
• Gandhi ji on religion:
• Indian philosophy on secularism:
• Threats on the secular spirit:
• Is the Indian democracy mature enough to handle the gravity of secularism?:
• Meaning and concept of regionalism:
• Theories on regionalism:
• Regionalism in its various manifestations:
• Role of various players:
• Recent incidents causing a wave of flurry:
• Possible ways to tackle the same:
• Constitutional arrangement:
• Women welfare:
• Child welfare:
• SC/ST welfare:
• OBC welfare:
• Minorities welfare:
• Old age welfare:
• Legislations:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Education structure in India:
• Primary, secondary and higher education:
• Initiatives taken by GOI in education:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Recommendations of committees:
• Future prospects in education sector:
• Skill development:
• Health indicators:
• Health structure in India:
• Private and Public health structure:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• NITI Aayog Report:
• Economic development and human development:
• SDGs and India:
• Poverty definition by different committees:
• Poverty data in India:
• Causes of poverty:
• Poverty and unemployment:
• Poverty and social conflict:
• Impact of LPG on poverty:
• Linkage between poverty and development:
• Rural poverty:
• Urban poverty:
• Feminization of poverty:
• Poverty alleviation measures:
• Problems in implementation of Poverty alleviation programmes:
• Poverty and Hunger:
• Food security programmes and issues:
• Hunger and health:
• Impact of hunger and poverty on economic development of the nation:
• 5th Schedule Areas:
• 6th Schedule Areas:
• Composition of autonomous councils:
• Role and functions of councils:
• Role of Governor with respect to tribal areas:
• Tribal sub plan:
• Controversy related to Poverty Data Estimation:
• Start Up India Scheme:
• Stand up India Scheme:
• National Student Startup Policy:
• National Skill Development Mission:
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana:
• Skill Development Initiative Scheme:
• Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU):
• Atal Innovation Mission:
• Social Security:
• Atal Pension Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana:
• Minorities:
• Nai Roshni Scheme:
• USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development):
• Nai Manzil Scheme:
• Women and Child Development:
• Beti Bachao Beti Padhao:
• Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana:
• Digital Gudda Guddi Board:
• Sabla:
• Ujjawala Scheme:
• Janani Suraksha Yojana:
• Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram:
• SC/ST:
• Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Disability:
• Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan):
• National Health Mission:
• National Ayush Mission:
• Swasthya Rakshan Program:
• Jan Aushadhi Scheme:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• NFHS-4 survey:
• Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat:
• Mid-Day Meal Scheme:
• Ishan Uday:
• GIAN (Global Initiative of Academic Networks):
• Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan:
• SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active - Learning for Young Aspiring Minds):
• Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan:
• Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission:
• Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana:
• Swachch Bharat Abhiyan:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban:
• Housing for all by 2022:
• Smart Cities Mission:
• Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana:
• Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation):
• Jeevan Praman:
• Digilocker:
• Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network):
• INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit:
• for Inspired Research):
• SAKAAR:
• Digital India:
• Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project):
• Ganga Gram Yojana:
• Jal Kranti Abhiyan:
• Khelo India:
• One Rank One Pension Scheme:
• PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation):
• Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF):
• Measurement criteria:
• Government initiatives for inclusive growth:
• Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/ Sanitations:
• Sustainable Development:
• Rural development and poverty alleviation:
• Review of the Existing Programmes:
• Development Administration:
• Panchayati Raj:
• Agriculture and Rural Development:
• The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act:
• ‘Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016’:
• ‘Child Labor (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016’:
• Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016:
• Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act:
• Mental Health Care Bill, 2013:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty:
• HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill-2014 - Amendments:
• Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC Widens Ambit:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefits:
• Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016:
• The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act:
• Secularism and Anti-Conversion:
• Regionalism: Demand for smaller states:
• Repercussions of making Hindi compulsory:
• Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011:
• Maternity benefit Amendment Bill:
• Altruistic surrogacy in India:
• Status of widows:
• Acid Attacks:
• SC banned Women Sterilization in India:
• Issue of Sex ratio:
• Issue of Triple Talaq:
• Female Foeticide and Infanticide:
• Reservation for Women in Legislature:
• Women in Combat Duties:
• Women in panchayats:
• Women participation in Economy:
• Challenges faced by Working Women:
• Draft National Policy for Women, 2016:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses:
• Issue of malnutrition in India:
• Amendments proposed in Child Labour Act:
• Plight of street children:
• Adoption Regulations, 2017:
• National Child Policy:
• Out of school children: Issues and steps needed:
• Cradle Baby Scheme:
• Juvenile Justice System:
• Child Marriages in India:
• Draft bill on child abduction:
• National Action Plan for Children, 2016:
• Report on the Protection of Children (Inter-Country Removal and Retention) Bill, 2016:
• Social stigma attached with HIV:
• Issues related to Transgender and Transgender Persons Bill, 2015:
• Euthanasia Issue: An Analysis:
• Right to Privacy and Aadhaar:
• Mental Health Care Bill:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2016:
• Challenge of ageing with dignity:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act:
• Maintenance of Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act:
• Manual Scavenging:
• Mob lynching and Rule of Law:
• Issue related to Undertrials:
• Issues related to Sanitation:
• Sharp reality of displacement:
• Moral policing:
• Income inequality in India:
• Forest Rights Act: Analysis:
• Issue of poor infrastructure in schools:
• No Detention Policy:
• New Policy on Education:
• Lancet Report on Healthcare spending:
• New Health Policy, 2017:
• Technology Adaptation in Health Care:
• Food Fortification:
• Progress Panchayat initiative:
• National Sex Offender Registry:
• Slum Redevelopment:
• Issue of farmer suicide in India:
• Anthropological Survey of India:
• National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes:
• T.V.S.N. Prasad Report on Pellet Guns:
• Uniform Civil Code:
• Concept of Open Prison:
• Importance of Constitution:
• Historical evolution of the Constitution:
• Constituent Assembly:
• Objectives of the Constitution:
• Salient features of Indian Constitution:
• Unitary features:
• Federal features:
• Parliamentary form of government:
• Presidential form of government:
• Parliamentary vs. Presidential system of government:
• Preamble Basic features:
• Preamble Value premises of constitution:
• Preamble Terminologies as::
• Democratic:
• Sovereign:
• Socialist:
• Secular:
• Republic:
• Justice:
• Equality:
• Liberty:
• Fraternity:
• Integrity:
• Basic constitutional features:
• Methodology of getting citizenship:
• Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India:
• Concept of dual citizenship:
• Citizenship provisions in J&K:
• Special privileges enjoyed by citizens in India:
• Significance of Fundamental Rights:
• Right to Equality:
• Right to Freedom:
• Right against Exploitation:
• Right to Freedom of Religion:
• Cultural and Educational Rights:
• Right to Constitutional Remedies:
• Difference between procedure established by law and due process of law:
• Writs and their uses:
• Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights:
• Basic features:
• Directives:
• Economic and Social DPSP:
• Gandhian DPSP:
• Administrative DPSP:
• DPSP related to International Peace:
• Implementation of DPSP:
• Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy Controversy:
• Features:
• Link of Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties:
• Process of law making in India:
• Role of Constitutional and extra constitutional bodies in law making:
• Basic structure: How it evolves?:
• Different types of majorities required in Indian Constitution:
• DPSP Fundamental Rights:
• Doctrines Terminologies:
• Features in American and UK Constitution:
• Checks and balances provisions in Indian Constitution:
• Judicial Review:
• Concept of Separation of Powers:
• It should cover Comparison of USA, UK, India and neighbours:
• State Reorganization Commission (brief):
• Components of Indian territory:
• Process of formation of new states:
• Zonal Councils:
• Union territories:
• Special provisions for states:
• Regulating functions of Government:
• Development functions of government:
• Service providing functions of government:
• Problems in implementation:
• Recommendations for improvement:
• Interrelationship between union, state and local government in implementation of roles:
• Constitutional provisions related to financial devolution:
• Issues of financial devolution:
• Administrative relations:
• Legislative relations:
• Financial relations:
• Misuse of Article 356:
• Issues related to concurrent list:
• Issues related to appointment of Governor:
• Issues related to state formation:
• Poor devolution of finances:
• Reserving bill for Presidential approval:
• Central sponsored schemes and issues:
• Special package for different states:
• Issues between Centre and State after 1990 reforms:
• Foreign policy and Centre and State Relations:
• Importance of President:
• Qualification:
• Election procedure:
• Advantages and disadvantages of single transferable form of voting:
• Presidents’ Term of Office and emoluments:
• Executive Powers:
• Legislative Powers:
• Emergency Powers:
• Financial Powers:
• Miscellaneous powers:
• Judicial powers:
• Presidents Impeachment:
• President as nominal head:
• Issues Ordinance making power:
• Issues Passage of bills:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Pardon power:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Coalition government:
• Office of the Vice-President:
• Functions:
• Appointment of PM:
• Functions of PM:
• Role of PM with respect to CoM:
• Role of PM with respect to President:
• Role of PM with respect to Lok Sabha:
• Role of PM with respect to Political Party:
• Role of PM with respect to Coalition Government:
• Division of CoM:
• Role of CoM:
• Role of Cabinet:
• Responsibilities of the Ministers:
• Qualification:
• Functions:
• Powers with respect to parliament:
• Composition of Rajya Sabha:
• Composition of Lok Sabha:
• Composition of Legislative assembly and Legislative Council:
• Qualification and disqualification of MPs and MLAs:
• Vacation of seats:
• Sessions of parliament:
• Law making procedure:
• Officers of Parliament and state legislature:
• Parliament Proceedings:
• Motions and resolutions in Parliament:
• Powers and Privileges:
• Financial proceedings:
• Comparison of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:
• Comparison of Legislative assembly and council:
• Women reservation in Parliament and issues:
• Lowering of Parliamentary powers:
• Parliamentary committees and their working:
• Judicial activism and Parliament:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Supreme Court Composition:
• Independence of Supreme Court:
• Jurisdiction of SC:
• Judicial Review:
• High Court Composition:
• High Court Terms and removal:
• High Court Jurisdiction:
• High Court Other powers:
• High Court Lower judiciary:
• High Court Appointment:
• High Court Powers:
• The role of the Supreme Court of India as guardian of the Constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights:
• Judicial Review:
• PIL:
• Judicial Activism:
• Judiciary appointment:
• Collegiums System:
• NJAC Controversy:
• National Court of Appeal:
• Judicial Accountability:
• Issues of corruption in judiciary:
• Functioning of Ministries:
• Central Secretariat:
• Cabinet Secretary:
• Field organizations:
• Reforms needed:
• International methodology:
• Provisions of 73rd AA and 74th AA:
• Role and functions of different tiers:
• Municipal Corporations:
• Municipal Councils:
• Nagar Panchayats:
• The steps taken towards women’s empowerment:
• Role of State Election commission:
• Role of State Finance Commission:
• Smart City Mission & Municipal Governance:
• What is Dispute redressal mechanism?:
• Need of Dispute redressal mechanisms:
• Administrative tribunal and issues:
• Fast Track Courts and issues:
• Gram Nyayalayas and issues:
• Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and issues:
• Family Courts and issues:
• Lok Adalat and issues:
• NALSA and issues:
• Dispute redressal for Weaker section:
• Arbitration Mechanism:
• International Arbitral Centre:
• Commercial Court:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• Role of CAG in good governance:
• Appointment, term of office, qualification, etc:
• Powers:
• Discretionary powers:
• Ordinance making power:
• Appointment:
• Powers and responsibilities:
• Relationship between the Governor and the Chief Minister:
• Relationship between CoM and the Chief Minister:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• The composition of Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad:
• Qualifications of the Members of Legislature:
• Powers and Functions of State Legislature:
• Relationship between both the Houses:
• Officers of State Legislature:
• Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members:
• Legislative procedure:
• Governor’s assent to Bills:
• Procedure in Financial Matters/Budget:
• Growth and Development:
• Human Development and Human Capital Formation:
• Equality (interpersonal and interregional) and social justice:
• • Unity and Integrity:
• Trust between state and citizens:
• What is effective implementation? Best outcomes in view of given time, resources and constraints:
• Analysis of different important schemes:
• Good Governance-Role of institutions, bureaucrats and other stakeholders:
• Transparency and accountability:
• Optimum use of resources- Right targeting, plugging leakages and wasteful expenditure, use of available knowledge, research and innovation.:
• Monitoring and evaluation- Outcome budget, zero base budgeting, input output analysis, cost-benefit analysis:
• Setting up institutions and regulatory norms task forces, steering committees and review committees.:
• Difference between Growth and Development:
• Main Constraints of Development:
• Main Stakeholders in Development Process:
• Self Help Groups Meaning:
• Self Help Groups Importance:
• Self Help Groups Objectives:
• Self Help Groups Institutional Structure and Organization:
• Self Help Groups Funding:
• Micro Finance Meaning and importance:
• Micro Finance Objectives:
• Micro Finance Structure and Organization:
• Micro Finance Advantages:
• Micro Finance Micro Finance in India:
• Non-Government Organizations:
• What are NGOs?:
• Difference between Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs):
• United Nations Criteria for INGO and NGO:
• NGOs and Development Projects:
• NGOs and Community Development:
• NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation:
• NGOs involved in disaster management:
• NGOs and advocacy:
• Citizen Centric Governance:
• Features of Good Governance:
• Legislative accountability:
• Administrative accountability:
• Judicial accountability:
• Ombudsman:
• Whistleblowers Concept:
• Anti Corruption Machinery:
• Role of Citizens:
• Role of Media:
• Social Audit:
• Systematic Reforms:
• Introduction:
• Applications:
• Models:
• Successes:
• Limitations:
• Future prospects:
• Citizens Charters:
• Models:
• Features:
• CC in India:
• Issues in CC Implementation:
• Reform needed:
• Concept of Civil Services:
• Need for Civil Services:
• Different Role of Civil Services:
• Law making:
• Policy formulation:
• Policy implementation:
• Policy evaluation:
• Civil services as protector of democracy:
• To protect minorities (religious and linguistic) :
• To promote Inclusive and sustainable growth:
• What are pressure groups?:
• Types:
• The significance of pressure groups in India:
• Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party:
• Evaluation of pressure groups role:
• Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment) - composition of CAG:
• Functions and responsibilities of CAG:
• Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment) - composition of ECI:
• Functions and responsibilities of ECI:
• Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament):
• Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC:
• Functions and responsibilities of UPSC:
• Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment) - composition of Finance commission:
• Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission:
• Powers and privileges of the Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• National Commission for SCs and STs.:
• SEBI:
• CVC:
• CBI:
• Planning Commission:
• NDC:
• PMO:
• Zonal Council:
• TRAI:
• IRDA:
• National Human Rights Commission:
• State Human Rights Commission:
• Central Information Commission:
• State Information Commission:
• National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission:
• Tribunal:
• Medical Council Of India:
• Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority:
• Biodiversity Authority Of India:
• Press Council Of India:
• Forward Markets Commission:
• Inland Waterways Authority Of India RBI:
• Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950:
• Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951:
• Electoral reforms:
• Criminalization of politics:
• Negative or neutral voting:
• State funding of Elections:
• Irregularities in polling:
• Political parties in India:
• Party reforms:
• Problems in the working of parties :
• Casteism and politics:
• Reforms in Party system in India:
• Strengthening of Anti-defection measures:
• Types of pressure groups:
• Role of pressure group in developing countries:
• Functions of pressure groups in India:
• Pressure groups and Methods:
• Pressure groups and Democracy:
• Criticism of pressure groups:
• Background of Relation:
• Political:
• Economic:
• The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation:
• Social:
• Psychological:
• The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi:
• Recommendations to Improve Relations:
• Economy: A Broad Overview:
• India, Bhutan and China: issues:
• The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister:
• A Long History of Bilateral Relations:
• The India-Afghanistan Development Partnership:
• Strategic factors undergirding India’s Partnership with Afghanistan:
• Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal:
• Options for India:
• Development Partnership:
• India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy:
• Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis:
• Geostrategic Importance of Maldives:
• Development Cooperation:
• Security Risks:
• Commercial Relations:
• Developmental Cooperation:
• Fishermen Issue:
• Relation through ages:
• Recent change in policy:
• China Role:
• Major Crisis:
• Water Dispute:
• Current Internal Scenario:
• Impact on India:
• Developments in Last One Year:
• Economic Relation:
• China India Water Related Issue:
• “String of Pearls Strategy”:
• China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India:
• Main Disputes:
• Resources as a Driver of Competition:
• Attempts for Resolution:
• India and South China Dispute:
• The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift:
• South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust:
• Piracy off the coast of Somalia:
• Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism:
• Energy Routes:
• Fisheries and Livelihood Issues:
• Environmental Security:
• Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace:
• India and Asian Nations relations:
• India-Turkmenistan:
• India-Kazakhstan:
• India Tajikistan:
• China And Central Asia:
• International North-South Transport Corridor:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
• India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation:
• Deal on Uranium Supply:
• Visit:
• Political and economic relation:
• Oil Economic Relation:
• Iran Nuclear Deal and India:
• India Iran Relations:
• US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran:
• Israel and Palestine:
• India – Israel Relations:
• Areas of Cooperation:
• Challenges in Relations:
• Zones of Activity:
• Regional Groupings:
• Geopolitics of Asia Pacific:
• Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations:
• India-ASEAN Security Co-operation:
• Economy Centric Relationship:
• Contemporary Perspective:
• India South Korea Relations:
• Economic Partnership in Recent Years:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Strategic Cooperation:
• Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation:
• China’s Response:
• India’s Response:
• Historical Connections:
• Gandhi’s Role:
• Nehru’s Role:
• Strengthening of Ties:
• South-south Engagement:
• Current Dynamics:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Human resources development and capacity building:
• Energy Cooperation:
• Military Security Co-operation:
• Trade Policy under Modi:
• Afro-Indian Trade:
• Indian investment in Africa:
• African investment in India:
• Development cooperation and assistance:
• Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora:
• Economic Relationship:
• Issue of Nuclear Cooperation:
• India-Russia Bilateral Relationship:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organization:
• Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia:
• Strategic Partnership:
• Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France:
• Indian-Germany Economic Relations:
• Ties in Current Context:
• Scotland’s Referendum:
• India & BREXIT:
• Area of Cooperation: Strategic Consultations:
• Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security:
• Area of Cooperation : Trade and Economic:
• Area of Cooperation : Energy and Climate Change:
• Area of Cooperation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space:
• Area of Cooperation : People to People Ties:
• Area of Cooperation : Defence Cooperation:
• Intellectual Property Issues:
• India and International Organisations:
• Representation in the WTO and Economic Groupings:
• How the WTO takes Decisions:
• The WTO Secretariat and Budget:
• How Countries Join the WTO:
• Assisting Developing and Transition Economies:
• Specialized Help for Export Promotion:
• The WTO’s Part in Global Economic Policy-making:
• Nairobi Package adopted at 10th WTO Ministerial Conference:
• WTO reports rise in protectionism:
• International Monetary Fund (IMF):
• India gets more Voting Rights in IMF Reforms:
• The fourth Nuclear Security Summit: 2016:
• Threats of Nuclear Terrorism:
• Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
• Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):
• Recent Support for NSG Membership for India:
• Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG?:
• Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG?:
• Argument in favour for India Joining NSG:
• Economic Environment in BRICS Countries:
• Last BRICS Summit in Goa, India:
• BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit:
• Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters:
• IBSA Potential:
• Need for Revitalizing IBSA:
• India’s Policy Options:
• Technological Collaboration:
• Indo-Pak Conflict:
• Problem of Resource Development:
• Prospects For SAARC:
• What is NAM?:
• Relevance in present era:
• Singapore:
• Vietnam:
• Indonesia:
• India ASEAN FTA in Service:
• Indian Economy in Pre-independence Period:
• Economy on Eve of Independence:
• Challenges:
• Features:
• Post-Independence India:
• Issues:
• Agriculture and its Development so far:
• Industry:
• Services:
• Phases of Economic Development in India:
• Nehruvian Socialist Economy:
• Economic Reforms:
• Planning:
• Objectives:
• Technical Details:
• Planning History:
• Analysis of each plan:
• Types of resources: Physical capital and finance capital:
• Need for resource mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State:
• Sources of resource mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector:
• Savings and investment over the five year plan:
• Budgetary resources: Tax and Non tax:
• Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.:
• Role of fiscal and monetary policies in resource mobilization:
• Role of foreign investment in resource mobilization, desirability and consequences:
• Multilateral agencies and resource mobilization:
• Meaning and concept of Inclusion:
• India’s experience:
• Social sector initiatives and inclusion process:
• Ground reality and working of flagship schemes:
• India’s growth story in this context:
• Why is India's growth not inclusive?:
• Rural economy based growth:
• Need for Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth.:
• Public distribution schemes: Way to inclusive growth.:
• Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth.:
• Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth:
• Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth.:
• Public private partnership for inclusive growth:
• Industrial Integration for inclusive growth:
• Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth.:
• Budget Terminology:
• Types of Budget:
• Features of outcome budgeting:
• Merger of Railway and General Budget:
• Benefits of budgeting:
• Flaws in budgeting process:
• Budget analysis:
• Measures of Investment:
• Capital and Investment:
• Factors affecting Investment:
• Classification of Investment:
• FDI:
• Angel Investors and Start-ups:
• M&A:
• Investment Models:
• Role of State:
• PPP (Public-Private Partnership):
• Savings and Investment Trends:
• Fiscal Policy in India:
• Important Budgetary Terms and Fiscal Concept:
• Government Revenues & Spending:
• Deficits:
• Balance Sheet:
• Taxation Meaning:
• Principles of Taxation:
• Objectives of Taxation:
• Taxation for Mobilization of Resources:
• Tax System in India:
• Subsidies:
• Tax Reforms:
• GST:
• Instruments of Monetary Policy:
• Monetary policy in pre-reform Era (1948 – 1991):
• Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991):
• Urjit Patel Committee Report:
• Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting:
• Money Market in India:
• Capital Market in India:
• Indian Capital Market Regulatory Framework:
• Primary Market Reforms in India:
• Secondary Market Reforms in India:
• Indian Banking System:
• Functions of Commercial Banks:
• Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India:
• Nationalization of Banks in India:
• Banking Reforms in India:
• New Bank Licence Criteria:
• Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria:
• Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC):
• Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India:
• Financial Inclusion:
• NPAs:
• Bills related to Banking:
• Land-use:
• Land Capability Classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Objectives of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Ceiling Legislation:
• NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing:
• Features of Agricultural Finance:
• Criteria for Agricultural Credit:
• Need for Agricultural Finance:
• Sources of Agricultural Finance:
• Problems of Agricultural Finance:
• Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture:
• Co-operative Credit Societies in India:
• Commercial Bank:
• Lead Bank Scheme:
• Multi Agency Approach:
• Regional Rural Banks:
• National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
• Reserve Bank of India:
• Kisan Credit Card Scheme:
• Self Help Group (SHG):
• Bank Linkage Programme:
• Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF):
• Government Policy For Agricultural Credit:
• Farmers Service Societies (FSS):
• Historical Background:
• Issues Related to Crop Insurance:
• Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:
• Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes:
• Challenges:
• Process of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing:
• Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Analysis of APMC Act:
• Objectives of Subsidies:
• Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies:
• Farm Subsidies:
• Fertiliser Subsidies:
• Subsidy on Power:
• Subsidy on Irrigation:
• Rationale of Minimum Support Price:
• Impact of MSP on inflation:
• Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS:
• Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers:
• Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB:
• Important questions on the future of subsidies:
• Green Revolution:
• White Revolution – Operation Flood:
• Yellow Revolution:
• Blue Revolution:
• Golden Fiber Revolution: Jute:
• Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors:
• Policy Initiatives:
• Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector FDI Policy in Food Processing:
• Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector Strategies Adopted in Budget:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector New foreign and domestic investment:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector-specific government policies:
• Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 1948 and 1956 critically:
• New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization:
• Phases of Industrial development:
• Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.:
• Strategies for disinvestment and privatization:
• Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization:
• New Manufacturing Policy:
• Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors:
• SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income:
• Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues:
• Main constraints in the industrial development of India:
• Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India:
• Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship:
• Make in India achievements:
• Transport:
• Importance and development of transport:
• Means of Transport:
• Transport costs and economic distance:
• Operating costs in transport:
• Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport:
• Profits and freight rates:
• Government’s transport policy:
• Transport patterns in the world::
• Oceanic transport Ocean transport routes:
• Inland waterways:
• Main regions of inland waterways:
• Railways: Factors affecting the railroads:
• Distribution of railroads in the world:
• Factors influencing air transport:
• Pipeline Transport:
• Petroleum (oil) Pipelines:
• Gas Pipelines:
• Transport costs and specialization:
• Transport and trade in the modern era:
• Transport costs and scale economies:
• Falling transport costs increase trade between neighbours:
• Failing transport costs lead to concentration within countries:
• Negative externalities of transport:
• Important issues Ownership and financing:
• Important issues Pricing of Public utilities:
• Important issues Infrastructure as avenues for investment:
• Important issues Project delays-reasons and measures to overcome:
• Important issues Public Private Partnership and related issues:
• Important issues Operation and Maintenance of roads, railways, irrigation and power projects-Main problems and solutions:
• Important issues Impact of Infrastructure-Economic impacts, impact on social development, environmental impacts :
• Cell Structure:
• Membranes:
• Cell-Cell Interactions:
• Energy and Metabolism:
• Respiration:
• Photosynthesis:
• How Cells Divide:
• Sexual Reproduction:
• Inheritance:
• DNA, The Genetic Material:
• Gene Expression:
• Gene Regulation:
• Mutation:
• Recombinant DNA Technology:
• Classification and Domains of Life:
• General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses:
• Prokaryotes:
• Eukaryotes:
• Protists:
• Plants:
• Fungi:
• Animals:
• Evolution of Life:
• Animal Evolution:
• Human Evolution:
• Epithelial tissue:
• Connective tissue:
• Muscle tissue:
• Beneficial animals: Corals - Earthworm -Vermiculture - Beneficial insects Prawns - Lobsters - Crabs – Pearl oysters - Fishes - Guano - Aquarium Vivarium:
• Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms Vectors - Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms - Pests.:
• Hypothalamus:
• Pineal body (epiphysis):
• Pituitary gland (hypophysis):
• Thyroid:
• Adrenal glands:
• Reproductive glands:
• External and Internal Respiration:
• Respiratory system in Plants:
• Respiratory System in Insects:
• Respiratory System in Humans and Animals:
• Transport system in a Cell:
• Transport System in Plants:
• Transport System in Animals:
• Blood Vascular System:
• The Lymphatic System:
• Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology):
• Ligaments (Syndesmology):
• Muscular System (Myology):
• Vertebrates:
• Asexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Asexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Sexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Humans:
• Excretory products:
• Excretion in plants:
• Excretion in Animals:
• Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals:
• Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments:
• Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon:
• Plant Nutrition:
• Animal Nutrition:
• Human Diet:
• The Digestive System:
• Industrial Genetics:
• Protoplast and cell fusion technologies:
• Genetic Engineering:
• DNA sequencing:
• Nucleic acid probes:
• Genomics and proteomics:
• Antisense and RNA interface:
• Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering:
• Bioprocess/fermentation technology:
• Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels:
• Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy source:
• Biofuels from biomass:
• Bioethanol from biomass:
• Biodiesel:
• Methane:
• Hydrogen:
• Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology:
• Waste water and sewage treatment:
• Landfilling technologies:
• Composting:
• Bioremediation:
• Detect and monitoring of pollutants:
• Microbes and the geological environment:
• Environmental sustainability and clean technology:
• Plant biotechnology:
• Forest Biotechnology:
• Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals:
• Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines:
• Animal organs for human patients:
• Genetically modified insects:
• Food and beverage fermentations:
• Microorganisms as food:
• Enzymes and food processing:
• Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners:
• Organic acids and polysaccharides:
• Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods:
• Biotechnology and medicine:
• Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals:
• Antibiotics:
• Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies:
• Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins:
• Pharmacogenetics:
• Molecular biology and human disease:
• Diagnostics in developing countries:
• Gene Therapy:
• Systems biology and medicine:
• Stem cell biotechnology:
• Patent protection Trade secrets:
• Plant breeders’ rights:
• Diseases in News:
• India Declared Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free:
• IPV Injection:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• New TB Drug Regimen:
• E-Cigarettes:
• Digital Biopiracy:
• Kendrapara Sheep:
• DNA Tagging of Convicts:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• Genetically Modified Mosquito:
• Designer Babies’ OR Three Parents Babies:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020:
• Types of orbits:
• Launch Vehicle:
• Satellite communication in India:
• INSAT Satellite application:
• Remote sensing applications:
• Cryogenic rockets:
• Global Positioning System:
• Galileo:
• GLONASS:
• IRNSS:
• GAGAN:
• Chandrayaan – I & II:
• Mars Orbiter Mission:
• Space Organisations:
• Space race/Space junk:
• Recent updates:
• South Asia Satellite: Significance:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Solar Mission- ADITYA:
• Gravitational Waves:
• FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope):
• Spitzer Space Telescope:
• Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope:
• Chandra X-ray Observatory:
• James Webb Space Telescope:
• ARIES/Devasthal Telescope:
• Multi Application Solar Telescope:
• Thirty Metre Telescope:
• Resourcesat- 2A:
• ASTROSAT:
• Sunspot:
• Magnetars:
• Neutron stars:
• Air-breathing propulsion system:
• Space Junk:
• Graveyard Orbit:
• India, NASA join hands for:
• Astrobiology Mission:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Indian Space Vision-2025:
• Missile system and classification:
• On the basis of type:
• On the basis of launch vehicle:
• On the basis of Range:
• On the basis of propulsion system:
• India’s Missile System Agni:
• India’s Missile System Prithvi:
• India’s Missile System Trishul:
• India’s Missile System Nag:
• India’s Missile System Dhanush:
• India’s Missile System Astra:
• India’s Missile System Prahaar:
• BrahMos Missile System:
• Indian Submarines and Naval Ships:
• Light Combat Aircraft:
• Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
• Stealth technology:
• Chemical Weapon:
• Biological Weapon:
• Types of nuclear reactions:
• Nuclear Power Reactor:
• N-Power Policy of India:
• Advantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Non-energy applications of Nuclear energy:
• Impact of Radiation:
• Issue of Radioactive Waste:
• Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB:
• Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants:
• Nuclear & Radiological Disasters:
• Computers:
• Generation of computers:
• Computer terminologies:
• Supercomputer and its applications:
• Information technology:
• Components of IT:
• IT enabled services:
• Application of IT:
• Display technologies:
• Cathode ray:
• LCD:
• LED:
• Plasma Monitors:
• OLED:
• Telecommunications:
• Mobile generations:
• Smartphone:
• Important concepts:
• Government initiatives:
• Digital India Initiative:
• MeghRaj:
• Code Free for India:
• E-Kranti:
• Bharat Net project:
• Bharat QR:
• Contemporary debates:
• Net Neutrality:
• Internet of Things:
• Big Data Initiative and Privacy:
• Cyber crime and security:
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra:
• BharatQR:
• Digital Transaction Methodologies:
• Smart Credit Cards:
• Bharat Net Project:
• Wi-fi Technology:
• BlockChain Technology and Bitcoins:
• Digital Terrestrial Television:
• Transmission System:
• Disaster Management Network:
• Param Ishan:
• Internet of Things:
• What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?:
• Origination of Nanoscience and Technology:
• Basics of Nanoscience:
• Nanomaterials:
• Applications of nanotechnology:
• Nano medicine:
• Semiconductors and computing:
• Food:
• Textiles:
• Sustainable energy:
• Environment:
• Transport:
• Space:
• Agriculture:
• Adverse Health and Environmental:
• Impacts of Nanotechnology:
• Social and Ethical Impacts::
• Nano-science and nano-technology in India:
• What is Robotics?:
• Machine vs Computer vs Robots:
• Parts of a Robot:
• Controller:
• Manipulator:
• End Effector:
• Sensor:
• Classification of Robots:
• Rolling Robots:
• Walking Robots:
• Autonomous Robots:
• Artificial Intelligence:
• Applications of Robotics:
• Industrial Sector:
• Aerospace:
• Healthcare Delivery:
• Outer Space:
• Exploration:
• Military Robots:
• Disaster Areas:
• Entertainment:
• Agriculture:
• Domestic work:
• Dimensions of Ethics:
• Essence of Ethics:
• Approaches of Ethical Study as Indian Perspective and Western Perspective:
• Basic concept of ethics morality and value:
• Ethics in public life:
• Ethics in Economic Life:
• Freedom and Discipline:
• Duties and Rights:
• Virtue Ethics:
• Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions:
• Values and Ethics in Government: Legislature, Executive and judiciary:
• Contribution of Family in Value Education:
• Contribution of Society in Inculcating Values:
• Role of Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values:
• Human Value & Socialization:
• Individual Personality and Value:
• Values and Skill:
• Fundamental and Instrumental Values:
• Democratic Values:
• Role of ethical value in governance and society:
• Significance of value in civil services:
• Aesthetic values:
• Values in work life and professional ethics:
• Essential Aptitude for Civil Servants:
• Foundational Values of Civil Services:
• Neutrality:
• Anonymity:
• Civil Services Accountability:
• Integrity:
• Humility:
• Adaptability:
• Magnanimity:
• Perseverance:
• Perseverance:
• Impartiality and Non-Partisanship:
• Tolerance and compassion for the weaker section:
• Contribution to Society:
• Indian Thinkers Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian Thinkers Dr. S. Radhakrishnan:
• Indian Thinkers Rabindranath Tagore:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Dayanand Saraswati:
• Indian Thinkers Mahadeva Govinda Ranade:
• Indian Thinkers Sri Aurobindo:
• Indian Thinkers Swami Vivekananda:
• Indian Thinkers Sardar Patel:
• Indian Thinkers Buddha Bhim Rao Ambedkar:
• Indian Thinkers Raja Ram Mohan Roy:
• Indian Thinkers Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj:
• Indian Thinkers Mother Teresa:
• Indian Thinkers Amitabha Chowdhury:
• Indian Thinkers Aruna Roy:
• Indian Thinkers T. N. Seshan:
• Indian Thinkers E. Sreedharan:
• Administrative Thinkers Max Weber:
• Administrative Thinkers Elton Mayo:
• Administrative Thinkers Peter Drucker:
• Administrative Thinkers Chestar Barnard:
• Administrative Thinkers Mary Parker Follet:
• World Thinkers Plato:
• World Thinkers Aristotle:
• World Thinkers Socrates:
• World Thinkers Jeremy Bentham:
• World Thinkers JS Mill:
• World Thinkers Thomas Hobbes:
• World Thinkers John Locke:
• World Thinkers Jean Jacques Rousseau:
• World Thinkers John Rawls:
• World Thinkers Immanuel Kant:
• World Thinkers Carol Gilligan:
• World Thinkers Jean Paul Sartre:
• World Thinkers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel:
• World Thinkers Confucius:
• World Thinkers René Descartes:
• World Thinkers Karl Marx:
• World Thinkers Adam Smith:
• World Thinkers Thomas Aquinas:
• World Thinkers David Hume:
• World Thinkers Democritus:
• World Thinkers Galileo:
• World Thinkers Friedrich Nietzsche:
• World Thinkers Montesquieu:
• World Thinkers Voltaire:
• World Thinkers Thomas Jefferson:
• Indian & World Leaders Benjamin Franklin:
• Indian & World Leaders Martin Luther King:
• Indian & World Leaders Dalai Lama:
• Indian & World Leaders Nelson Mandela:
• Indian & World Leaders Mahatma Gandhi:
• Indian & World Leaders Siddhartha Gautama:
• Indian & World Leaders Aung San Suu Kyi:
• Indian & World Leaders Swami Vivekanand:
• Indian & World Leaders Albert Einstein:
• Indian & World Leaders Abraham Lincoln:
• Indian & World Leaders Mother Teresa:
• Indian & World Leaders J L Nehru:
• Indian & World Leaders Lee Kuan Yew:
• Indian & World Leaders Abdul Kalam:
• Indian & World Leaders Henry Ford:
• Indian & World Leaders Muhammad Yunus:
• Indian & World Leaders Wangari Maathai:
• Indian & World Leaders Kofi Annan:
• Indian & World Leaders Lech Walesa:
• Indian & World Leaders Desmond Tutu:
• Indian & World Leaders Isaac Newton:
• Indian & World Leaders Elie Wiesel:
• Indian & World Leaders King Ashoka:
• Indian & World Leaders Sun Yat Sen:
• Components of Attitude Affective component:
• Components of Attitude Cognitive component:
• Components of Attitude Behavioral component:
• Functions of Attitude Adjustive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Ego-Defensive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Value-Expressive Function:
• Functions of Attitude Knowledge Function:
• Functions of Attitude Attitude Formation Model:
• Functions of Attitude Impact of Beliefs and Values:
• Functions of Attitude Group Influences:
• Functions of Attitude Social Influence:
• Functions of Attitude Persuasion Tactics:
• Functions of Attitude Tools of Persuasion:
• Functions of Attitude Moral Attitude formation:
• Functions of Attitude Political Attitude formation:
• Theories Associated with Emotional Intelligence:
• Can Emotional Intelligence be Developed?:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Awareness Cluster: Understanding Feelings and Accurate Self-Assessment:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Self-Management Cluster: Managing Internal States, Impulses, and Resources:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Social Awareness Cluster: Reading People and Groups Accurately:
• Components of Emotional Competencies The Relationship Management Cluster: Inducing Desirable Responses in Others:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence at Workplace:
• Importance of Emotional Intelligence in Civil Services:
• Ethical Concerns in Public Institution:
• Ethical Concerns in Private Institutions:
• Ethical Dilemmas in Public and Private Institutions:
• Laws, Rules and Regulations as Source of Ethical Guidance:
• Accountability and Ethical Governance:
• Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance:
• Moral Judgments in International Relations:
• Ethical Relation in Funding:
• International Relations and concept of Moral Responsibility:
• Ethics in working of international organizations:
• What is Corporate Governance?:
• Models of Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Steps taken by World Bank for Good Corporate Governance:
• Norms for Corporate Government in India:
• Concept of business ethics:
• Concept of Public Service:
• Philosophical basis of Governance and Probity:
• Information Sharing, Transparency and Right to Information:
• Flaws in RTI and recommendations for improvement:
• Importance of vigilant citizens:
• Information sharing and participation:
• Importance of Code of ethics:
• Code of Ethics in Professions:
• Code of Conduct for Ministers; for Legislators; for Civil Servants; for Regulators and for the Judiciary:
• Components of a Citizen Charter:
• Steps in formulation of a Citizen’s Charter:
• Concept of Work Culture:
• The Indian Approach to Work:
• Methods of improving Work Culture:
• Quality of Service Delivery:
• Utilisation of Public Funds:
• Problems in Fund Release and Utilization:
• Parliamentary Control on Expenditure:
• Corruption in India: extent, dimension, and response:
• Corruption as a social evil:
• Probity in public life Corrupt practice among civil servants and official misconduct:
• Exposing corruption: Civil Society initiatives and role of Whistleblower Act:
• Tackling corruption: Role of government and institutions of governance:
• Controlling corruption: Various approaches and efficacy:
• Social and ethical angle:
• Different arguments related to Euthanasia:
• Conclusion:
• Case study:
• Issues:
• Ethical Issues:
• Concept of ethical surrogacy:
• Conclusion:
• Importance of sports:
• Ethical Issue: Need for sportsmanship:
• Ethical Issue: Doping:
• Ethical Issue: Discrimination and Sexual Harassment:
• Ethical Issue: Sports as a Business:
• Steps needed:
• Role of Media:
• Ethical Issues faced by Reporters:
• Trial by Media:
• Media Prejudice:
• Ethical Dilemma faced by Photojournalists:
• Digital Media Ethics:
• Paid News:
• Principles of Business Ethics:
• Dimensions related to Business Ethics in Organisation:
• Business Ethics and Corporate Governance:
• Journey from Philanthropy to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility:
• Issues in implementation of Business Ethics:
• Why are Economic Sanctions placed?:
• Ethics in Economic Sanctions:
• Conclusion:
• Why Migration occur?:
• Case study of Syria:
• Dilemmas related to Refugee crisis:
• Steps needed:
• What is Globalisation:
• Free trade in Globalised world:
• Issues with Newly developed trade patterns:
• Criticism against global regime:
• Way forward:
• Ethics and War theories:
• Evils of war:
• Linkage between Ethics and Environment:
• Theories related to Environmental ethics:
• Role of Individual:
• Issues related to Stem Cell:
• Issues related to cloning:
• Issues related to designer babies:
• Introduction:
• Issues of conducting research on animals:
• Issue of keeping animals as pets:
• Issue of Cruelty against animals:
• Conclusion:
• Ethical dimension:
• Ethical issue related to food additive:
• Law of abortion in India:
• Recent Supreme Court verdict:
• Ethical Issue: Health of Women vs. fetus:
• Justification for abortion:
• Argument against abortion:
• Abortion and women rights:
• Abortion and father rights:
• Honour killing is unethical:
• Role of khap panchayat:
• Why Marital Rape should and should not be criminalized?:
• What are the hurdles?:
• Labour:
• Rights of children:
• Child labour and company:
• Solution:
• Role of consumer:
• Juvenile justice system:
• Negative implications:
• Ethical issues:
• Issues faced:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Importance of autonomy:
• Ethical principles in Public relationships:
• Linkage between Private relationships and Public relationships:
• Ecological Hierarchy:
• Scope of Ecology:
• Habitat & Ecological Niche:
• Deep vs Shallow Ecology:
• Ecological Principles:
• Ecological Community Structure and Characteristics of a Community:
• Ecological Community Stratification:
• Ecological Community Ecotones:
• Ecological Community Ecological Dominance:
• Ecological Community Seasonal and Diurnal Fluctuation:
• Ecological Community Periodicity:
• Ecological Community Turnover:
• Ecological Community Interdependence:
• Ecological Succession Types and Process of Succession:
• Ecological Succession Climax Community:
• Range of Tolerance, Maximum Range:
• Difference between Ecology:
• Environment and Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Definitions:
• The Structure/Components of Ecosystem:
• Abiotic Components:
• Functions and Properties of Ecosystem Biotic Components:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Flow of Energy in Ecosystem:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Trophic Levels:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Types & Significance of Food Chain:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Food Web:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Models for Energy Flow:
• Ecosystem Dynamics Ecological Productivity:
• Ecological Pyramid:
• Biomagnifications:
• Biological Control:
• Organic Farming:
• Parts of a Bio Geochemical Cycle:
• Types of Biogeochemical Cycle:
• Carbon Cycle:
• Nitrogen Cycle:
• Phosphorus Cycle:
• Sulphur Cycle:
• Biome:
• Grasslands:
• Tundra:
• Deserts:
• Thar Desert:
• Mountain Biome:
• Aquatic Ecosystems:
• Basic facts about the ocean:
• Importance of the ocean:
• Zones of the ocean Marine life:
• Coral reefs:
• Coral reefs in India:
• Conserving coral reefs:
• Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Freshwater in India:
• Importance of lakes:
• National Lake Conservation Plan:
• Wetlands and their importance:
• Ramsar Convention:
• Ramsar Sites:
• Montreux Record:
• Extent and distribution of wetlands in India:
• Conserving the wetlands of India:
• Biodiversity:
• Important kinds of Biodiversity:
• Degree of Diversity in an Ecosystem Endemic species:
• Keystone species:
• Indicator species:
• Invasive species:
• Allopatric and sympatric speciation:
• Bioinformatics Biodiversity distribution:
• Megadivers Countries:
• Uses and values of Biodiversity:
• State of global Biodiversity:
• Threats to Biodiversity:
• Biodiversity Hotspots:
• Eco-regions:
• Role of traditional knowledge in biodiversity:
• Biopiracy:
• Extinction of species:
• Mass extinction:
• IUCN’s classification scheme:
• IUCN Red-List of Threatened Species:
• Level of biodiversity in India:
• Biogeographic classification of India:
• Ex-situ aid in-situ conservation:
• Seed Banks:
• Zoos in Biodiversity Conservation:
• Botanical Gardens:
• Protected areas:
• State of protected areas in the world:
• UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB):
• Characteristics of Biosphere Reserves:
• International Agreements for Biodiversity Conservation:
• Convention on Biological Diversity:
• Cartagena Protocol:
• Nagoya Protocol:
• Aichi Biodiversity Targets:
• Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas of India:
• Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of India:
• Global Tiger Initiative:
• Project Tiger:
• Project Elephant:
• Indian Rhino Vision:
• Recovery Programme for Critically Endangered Species:
• Use of indigenous knowledge for conserving biodiversity:
• Seed village:
• Effect of Modern Agriculture on Environment:
• Effect of Housing on Environment:
• Effect of Power Generation on Environment:
• Effect of River Valley Projects:
• (Water Resource Projects) on Environment:
• Effect of Mining on Environment:
• Effect of Transportation Activities on Environment:
• Effect of Tourism on Environment:
• Water Cycle (Hydrological Cycle):
• Availability and Quality Aspects (groundwater depletion):
• Water-borne and Water-induced Diseases:
• Fluoride Problem in Drinking Water:
• Arsenic Problem in Drinking Water:
• Mining and Environment:
• Sensitivity of Select Ecosystems to Mining:
• Impact of Mining:
• Indirect Impact of Mining:
• International Laws on Mining:
• Main Act or Statute to regulate the impact of Indian Mining Sector:
• Sustainable Mining:
• Causes of Deforestation:
• Implications of Deforestation for Climate Change:
• Consequences of Deforestation on the Wildlife of India:
• Impact of Deforestation on Indian Monsoon:
• Impact of Deforestation on People:
• Deforestation Leads to Water and Soil Resources Loss and Flooding:
• Economical Impacts:
• Strategies for Reducing Deforestation:
• Government Programmes for Conservation of Forests:
• Legislations for Conservation of Forests using People Participation:
• Steps for Improving People Participation in Forest Resource Management:
• Use of Local Traditional Methods:
• Solid Waste:
• Hazardous Waste:
• E-Waste:
• Bio Medical Waste:
• Plastic Waste:
• Methods for Waste Management:
• Effects of Poor Waste Disposal:
• Landfill:
• Principles of Sustainability:
• Measurement of Sustainability or Sustainable Ethics or Equitable Utilisation of Natural Resource:
• Sustainable Lifestyle (Role of an individual in sustainable, development):
• Challenges to Sustainable Development:
• International Efforts to Achieve Sustainability:
• Air Pollution:
• Sources of Air Pollution:
• Effects of Air Pollution:
• Classification of Air Pollutant:
• Control Measures of Air Pollution:
• Air Pollution Disasters:
• Long Range Transport of Gaseous Air Pollutants:
• National Ambient Air Quality Standards:
• Water Pollution:
• Sources of Water Pollution:
• Types of Water Pollutants:
• Effects of Water Pollution:
• Water Quality Standards:
• Control of Water Pollution:
• Thermal Pollution:
• Sources of Thermal Pollution:
• Effects of Thermal Pollution:
• Control of Thermal Pollution:
• Soil Pollution or Land Degradation:
• Sources of Soil Pollution:
• Effects of Soil Pollution:
• Control Measures:
• Noise Pollution:
• Air-borne Diseases:
• Toxic Substances: Toxicant, Toxicity and Toxicology:
• Factors affecting toxicity:
• Carcinogens:
• Sources of Solid Waste:
• Effect of Solid Waste:
• Control Measures of Solid Waste:
• Solid Waste Management Rules:
• Hazardous Waste Management (HWM):
• Mangroves:
• Salient features of Mangroves:
• Importance of Mangroves:
• Mangroves in India:
• Mangroves under threats:
• Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection:
• Estuaries:
• Importance of estuaries:
• Threats to estuaries:
• Coral Reefs:
• Geographical Conditions Required:
• Uses of coral reefs:
• Conservation of coral reef:
• Steps for Coastal Ecosystem Management:
• Air Pollution:
• Report on Air Pollution:
• Bharat Stage Emission Standards:
• Polluters Pay Model:
• Household Air Pollution:
• Open Waste Burning and its Impact:
• Graded Response Action Plan on Pollution:
• UN Sets Limits on Global Airline Emissions:
• Waste Management:
• Biodegradable Plastics:
• Green Train Corridors:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management-Buffer Zone:
• Other News:
• Report of Parliamentary Committee on Forest Fires:
• Urban Forestry Scheme:
• Draft Notification to Regulate Pet Shops:
• Ban on Import of Animal Skin:
• River linking Project and Impact on:
• Environment:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Illegal Salt Mining and its Impact:
• India’s Wetland Report, 2016:
• Deep Sea Mining:
• Mass Coral Bleaching:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Government Body which Executes EIA:
• Environmental Effects Analysed under EIA:
• Process of EIA:
• EIA Ruling 1984:
• Environmental Laws: Provisions in the Indian Constitution towards Environmental Protection:
• Salient Features of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,1981*:
• Salient Features of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
• Salient features of Forest Conservation Act, I980:
• Salient Features of Wildlife Protection Act,1972:
• Salient Features of Environment (Protection) Act,1986:
• Role of Government in Environmental Protection:
• Pollution Control Boards:
• National Green Tribunal:
• Forest Survey of India:
• National Board for Wildlife:
• Ecomark Scheme:
• National Afforestation Program:
• National River Conservation Plan:
• National Mission for Clean Ganga:
• National Air Quality Index (AQI):
• National Action:
• Programme to Combat Desertification:
• UJALA Scheme:
• Bharat Stage Norms:
• UNEP:
• UNDP:
• Centre for Biological Diversity:
• WWF for Nature:
• IUCN - Red List:
• Birdlife International:
• International Conventions/Protocols & their Objectives:
• Green House Effect and Global Warming:
• Global Climate Change: International Efforts to Control Global Warming or Global Climate Change:
• Ozone Layer Depletion/Ozone Hole:
• Acid Rain:
• El Nino:
• La Nina:
• Pollution in metros and climate change:
• Real estate boom and environment degradation:
• Urban Heat Island:
• Polythene bags and pollution:
• Methane generation from waste:
• Agriculture Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions:
• Monoculture Practice Impacts Biodiversity:
• Pollution due to use of chemical fertilizers:
• Soil-related effects:
• Fertilizers’ Effect on the Environment:
• Impact of livestock on environment:
• Impact of use of Pesticides on Environment:
• Impact of GM crop on Environment:
• Emission of Methane from agricultural practices:
• Sustainable Agriculture Techniques:
• Health impacts of global warming:
• Mosquito-borne diseases:
• Ozone depletion and human health:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Climate Change Indicators: WMO report:
• IPCC 5th Assessment Report:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• International Solar Alliance (ISA):
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment 2013-20):
• Kigali Agreement:
• Climate Change Performance Index:
• Man-Animal Conflicts in India:
• Poaching activities in India:
• Controlling wildlife crimes using sniffer dogs:
• Draft on animal cruelty:
• Formation of Tiger Reserves: Critical Analysis:
• International treaties for wildlife conservation:
• Use of drones for wildlife conservation:
• Indoor Air Pollution and its impact:
• Impact of Particulate Matter:
• Smog and its impact:
• Plastic Pollution:
• Light Pollution:
• Oil Spill:
• Solid Waste Management:
• E-waste Management Rules 2016:
• Groundwater contamination:
• Bharat Stage Norm:
• What is the Polluters Pay Model?:
• Paris Agreement:
• Marrakech Climate Change Conference:
• Kigali Agreement:
• Kyoto Protocol (2nd Commitment):
• International Solar Alliance:
• Programmes and Policies Initiated for Mitigating Climate Change:
• International Collaboration for Mitigating Climate Change:
• Carbon Neutrality Concept:
• Concept of Green Bond:
• Green Climate Fund:
• Carbon Tax Feasibility in India:
• Concept of Green Building:
• Climate Change and Cities:
• Ethical issue involved in climate change:
• Climate change and its impact on Health:
• National Solar Mission:
• Status of Hydro Power energy in India:
• Status of Wind Energy in India:
• Green Transportation:
• Ganga River Pollution:
• Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act:
• Draft National Wildlife Action Plan:
• Draft Wetland Management Rules:
• Initiatives to enhance green cover:
• Policy on Promotion of City Compost:
• Living status to Rivers:
• National Hydrology Project:
• Pollution Control Board: Analysis:
• National Green Tribunal: Analysis:
• Forest Survey of India:
• Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee:
• Traditional Knowledge Digital Library:
• T S R Subramanian Panel Report:
• Algal Bloom Issue:
• Melting of Antarctica and its Impact:
• River linking project and its Impact:
• Public Participation for Environmental Conservation:
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• -1' OR 2+436-436-1=0+0+0+1 or 'X2Ka6ZLj'=':
• Periodization of Indian pre history:
• Sources of prehistory:
• Stone ageo Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC):
• Stone age Mesolithic (10,000 BC – 8,000 BC):
• Stone age Palaeolithic (8000 BC – 4000 BC):
• Chalcolithic Age (4000 BC – 1500 BC):
• Iron age (1500 BC-200 BC):
• Impact of Iron:
• Neolithic Phase:
• Chalcolithic Phase:
• Early Iron Phase:
• Geographical Distribution and Characteristics:
• Major cities:
• Town Planning:
• Harappan Trade:
• Agriculture:
• Domestication of animals:
• Crafts:
• Religion:
• Harappan Pottery:
• Weights and Measures:
• Script and Language:
• Images:
• Decline of Harappan Culture:
• Original Home of Aryans:
• Features of Aryan Culture:
• Vedic Texts:
• Sources for Reconstructing :
• Vedic Society and Culture:
• Geography of the Rig Vedic Period:
• Geography of the later Vedic Phases:
• Economic Conditions:
• Political Organization and Evolution of Monarchy:
• Social Organisation and Varna System:
• Religion and Thought:
• Formation of states:
• The Sixteen Mahajanapadas:
• Republics:
• Rise of urban centres:
• Haryanka dynasty:
• Shishunaga dynasty:
• Nanda dynasty:
• Chandragupta and Bindusara:
• Megasthenes:
• Asoka and His Successors:
• Asoka’s Inscriptions and Sites:
• Asoka’ a Dhamma:
• Mauryan. Administration, Economy, Society and Art:
• The Arthasastra:
• Society Evolution of Jatis:
• Sangam Texts-and Society:
• Satavahanas and Other Indigenous Dynasties:
• Foreign Dynasties:
• Commercial Contacts with the Outside World:
• Schools of Art:
• Jainism:
• Buddhism:
• Sources of Gupta Rule:
• Political history of Guptas:
• Fahien:
• Gupta Administration:
• Gupta Culture:
• Urban centres in Gupta period:
• Economic Conditions:
• Sources for Harsha’s Period:
• Early life of Harsha:
• Harsha’s Administration:
• Important Officials of the empire:
• Economy under Harsha:
• Society:
• Religion:
• The Satavahanas (230 BC TO AD 225):
• The Pallavas (AD 330–796):
• The Chalukyas (AD 535–1190):
• The Pandyas of Madurai (AD 590–1323):
• The Timurids:
• The Timurid-Uzbek and Uzbek-Iran Conflict and Babur:
• Babur’s Advance towards India:
• Struggle between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur:
• The Battle of Panipat:
• Babur’s problems after the Battle of Panipat:
• Struggle with Rana Sanga:
• Problems of the Eastern Areas and the Afghans:
• Babur’s Contribution and Significance of his Advent into India:
• Humayun and the Afghans:
• Early Activities of Humayun, and the Tussle with Bahadur Shah:
• The Gujarat Campaign:
• The Bengal Campaign, and Struggle with Sher Khan:
• The Surs:
• Sher Shah’s Early Life:
• Social and Political Background of Bihar and the Rise of Sher Shah to Power.:
• The Sur Empire (1540-56):
• Contributions of Sher Shah:
• Conflict with the Afghans - Hemu:
• Struggle with the Nobility: Bairam Khan’s:
• Regency; Revolt of Uzbek Nobles:
• Early Expansion of the Empire (1560-76) - Malwa, Garh-Katanga, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India:
• Relations with the Rajputs - Growth of a Composite Ruling Class:
• Rebellions, and Further Expansion of the Empire in the North West:
• Akbar’s Concept of Suzerainty:
• Structure of Government, Central and Provincial - the Vikalat, Central Ministries, Provincial Government,:
• District and Local Government:
• The Working of Government - the Ruler, Land-Revenue System, the Dahsala System. The Mansabdari System and the Army:
• Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms:
• The Early Phase (1556-73):
• The Second Phase (1573-80) - the Ibadat Khana:
• Debates - the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox:
• Ulama - Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants:
• Third or Final Phase - Din-i-Ilahi :
• State Policies and religious toleration:
• The Deccani States upto 1595:
• Mughal Advance towards the Deccan:
• Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar:
• Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27):
• Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal:
• Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda:
• Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57):
• Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States:
• Akbar and the Uzbeks:
• The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran:
• Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign:
• Mughal - Persian Relations - the Last Phase:
• Jahangir’s Accession - his Early Difficulties:
• Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire - Mewar, East India and Kangra:
• Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’:
• The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan:
• Jahangir as a Ruler:
• State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century:
• Shah Jahan - Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire:
• Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System:
• War of Succession:
• Religious Policy: First Phase (1658-79):
• Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu:
• Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707):
• Territorial Consolidation and:
• Expansion of Empire - North India:
• Popular Revolts - Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs:
• Breach with Marwar and Mewar:
• Rise of the Marathas - Early Career of Shivaji :
• Treaty of Purandar - the Agra Visit:
• Shivaji’s Swaraj – Administration and Achievements:
• Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87):
• Marathas and the Deccan (1687-1707):
• Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis:
• Rural Society:
• Towns and Town Life:
• Artisans and Master-Craftsmen:
• Women:
• Servants and Slaves:
• Standard of Living:
• The Ruling Classes - Nobility, Rural Gentry:
• The Middle Strata:
• The Commercial Classes:
• Inland Trade:
• Overseas Trade - Role of Foreign Trading companies - Position of Indian merchant’s over-land Trade:
• The Mughal State and Commerce:
• Trend of India’s Economy and Prospects during the First Half of the Eighteenth Century:
• Religion- Hindu Religion, Sikh Religion, Islam:
• Fine Arts - Architecture, Painting, Language and Literature, Music:
• Science and Technology:
• Bahadur Shah I, and the Beginning of the Struggle:
• For Wizarat - Rajput Affairs - Marathas:
• Deccan - Accentuation of the Party Struggle:
• Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat: Zulfiqar Khan and Jahandar Shah (1712-13):
• The Sayyid Brothers’ Struggle for ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Saiyid ‘New’ Wizarat:
• The Wizarat of M. Amin Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• Rise of Regional States, Beginning of Foreign Invasions of India (1725-48):
• The Marathas and their Policy of Expansion:
• The Marathas and Nizam-ul-Mulk:
• The Maratha Advance into Gujarat and Malwa:
• The Maratha Advance into Doab and Punjab:
• First Phase (1741-52); Second Phase (1752-61);:
• Third Battle of Panipat:
• Later Mughals:
• Regional powers in 18th Century:
• The British conquest of India:
• The wars during British conquest of India:
• British Administration before 1857:
• Indian National Movement (1858-1905):
• Early Nationalists and Swadeshi Movement:
• Government of India Act 1909:
• Home rule league movement:
• Montague’s statement – Aug 1917:
• Emergence of Gandhi – as a mass leader:
• Khilafat & non-Cooperation Movement (NCM):
• Swaraj party:
• Revolutionary Terrorism phase II (1920’s):
• Simon Commission and Nehru report:
• Civil Disobedience Movement:
• Round table conference:
• Poona pact:
• Government of India Act 1935:
• Tripuri session – 1939:
• August offer:
• Individual Satyagraha 1940-41:
• Popular struggles in the princely states:
• 2nd World War and Nationalist response:
• Rise of Communalism:
• Wavell plan:
• Cabinet Mission Plan:
• Mountbatten plan:
• Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement:
• Civil Rebellions during British:
• Tribal movements during British period:
• Peasant’s movement during British period:
• Working class Movement (1850-1900):
• Growth of communalism:
• Left and communist trends in National Movement:
• Press and education during British period:
• Role of women in Freedom Struggle:
• Governor generals of India:
• Viceroys of India:
• Important persons:
• Important newspaper/journals:
• Congress sessions:
• Constitutional provisions related to State formation:
• Factors that led to merger:
• Accession of the princely states:
• Accession of States under France and Portuguese:
• Accession of Sikkim:
• Rehabilitation of the Refugees:
• Federal crisis:
• Regional aspirations, insurgencies and areas of tension:
• Accommodation and national integration:
• Constitutional position and language policy:
• Language and regionalism:
• Recent controversy due to rise of Hindi:
• Issues & Present Status:
• Policy consolidation:
• Issues & challenges:
• Women movements:
• Government policy response and legislation:
• Governmental schemes:
• Caste practices in India:
• Ambedkar Movement:
• Constitutional provisions:
• Recent government initiatives for emancipation of Scheduled Castes:
• Issues of Manual Scavenging:
• Secularism:
• Causes of Communalism in India:
• Consequences of the communalism and social consolidation:
• Operational Inefficiency:
• Government initiatives:
• Planning in India:
• Industry:
• Service sector:
• Current challenges facing the Indian economy:
• Agriculture:
• Journey through Five Year Plans:
• Land Reforms:
• Post Green Revolution Agricultural Issues:
• Agrarian Movements:
• Achievements in Agriculture Since Independence:
• Recent Challenges:
• Industrial development since independence:
• Public sector since independence:
• Sectoral Development:
• Private Sector since Independence:
• Industrial Policy since Independence:
• Make in India:
• Impact of New Economic Policy:
• India’s Policy in the Field of the Science and Technology:
• Institutional Framework for Science and Technology Development:
• Science and Technology in Pre- Reform Period:
• Impact of Economic Reform on the:
• Science and Technology in India: New Policy Initiatives in the S&T:
• Science and Technology in India: Agenda of the Skill Training:
• Disintegration of the Feudal System:
• Renaissance:
• Humanism:
• Art and Architecture:
• Literature:
• Science:
• Reformation etc.:
• Explorations, Discovery, Trade:
• Colonization – Rise of Nation State:
• The English Revolution:
• Causes:
• The revolution in France:
• France under Napoleon:
• Impact of revolution:
• Significance of revolution:
• Rise of the nation- state system:
• Unification of Italy:
• Unification of Germany:
• Colonialism:
• The age of Imperialism (1870-1914):
• Imperialism in Asia:
• Analysis of Colonialism:
• Foundation of American Colonies:
• The Independence of United States of America:
• The American Revolutionary War:
• What was the impact of American Revolution?:
• Political Effects of the Revolution:
• How did the American Revolution influence the French Revolution?:
• US Civil War:
• Impact of Civil War on USA:
• Global Impact of US Civil War:
• Impact on India:
• Major causes of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Analysis of major events of the war:
• Consequences of World War I:
• Aftermath of World War I:
• League of Nations:
• Major events in pre-revolution Russia:
• Causes:
• Course of revolution:
• Consequences:
• Aftermath of the war:
• Post-Lenin Russia:
• The Great Depression:
• The Great Depression- an economic perspective:
• Rise of Fascism in Italy:
• Rise of Nazism in Germany:
• Soviet Union (USSR):
• Foundations of the war:
• Course of the war:
• Aftermath of war:
• Analysis of the war:
• Decolonization phase:
• Democratic reforms in Middle East:
• Arab nationalism:
• Israel:
• Reasons:
• Development of Cold War (1945-1953):
• To what extent was there a thaw after 1953?:
• Nuclear Arms Race and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962):
• Global issues since 1991:
• Integration of Europe:
• European integration- a timeline:
• Rise of global Islamic terrorism:
• Rise of China:
• Capitalism (concept, types and example):
• Communism (concept, types, example):
• Relevance of capitalism in present era:
• Sculptures of Harappan Civilization:
• Sculptures of Mauryan Age:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Jain Sculptures:
• Buddhist Sculpture:
• Gupta Sculpture:
• Medieval School of Sculpture:
• Modern Indian Sculpture:
• Harappan Period:
• Mauryan Architecture:
• Post-Mauryan Period:
• Gupta Period:
• Temples of Khajuraho:
• Temples of Odisha:
• Temples of Gwalior:
• Temples of Gujarat:
• Temples of Rajasthan:
• Temples of Bengal:
• Temples of Assam:
• Temples of Himachal Pradesh:
• Temples of Jammu and Kashmir:
• Pallava Period:
• Chola Period:
• Pandya Temples:
• Vijayanagar Period:
• NayakaTemples:
• Temples of Kerala:
• Vesara Style:
• Hoysala Style:
• Rashtrakuta Period:
• Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate):
• Provincial Style:
• Mughal Style:
• Sikh Style of Architecture:
• Rajput Architecture:
• Salient features:
• European Influence:
• Indo-Saracenic Architecture:
• Post-Independence Period:
• Tradition of Mural Paintings in India:
• Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India:
• Paintings in the Deccan:
• Rajput School of Painting:
• Pahari School of Painting:
• Miniature Painting in South India:
• Regional Paintings:
• Modern Paintings:
• Contemporary Paintings:
• Ochre: Colored Pottery (OCP):
• Black and Red Ware (BRW):
• Painted Grey Ware (PGW):
• Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW):
• Glazed and Unglazed Pottery:
• Main Pillars of Indian Music:
• Forms of Indian Music:
• Musical Instruments:
• Institutions Related to Music:
• Concept of Dance in India:
• Concept of Ashta Nayika:
• Eight Classical Dance Forms in India:
• Folk Dances:
• Modern Dances:
• Genesis of Martial Arts:
• Forms of Traditional Martial Arts:
• Classical Sanskrit Theatre:
• Regional Theatre:
• Modern Theatre:
• Renaissance of Indian Theatre:
• String Puppets:
• Shadow Puppets:
• Rod Puppets:
• Glove puppets:
• Modern Puppetry:
• Tribal Puppetry:
• Cinema in India:
• History of Indian Cinema:
• Classification of Indian Cinema Film:
• Music of India:
• Pre-Vedic Religion:
• Hinduism:
• Buddhism:
• Jainism:
• Sikhism:
• Islam:
• Christianity:
• Zoroastrianism:
• Judaism:
• Philosophy in India:
• Bhakti Movement:
• Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation:
• Other Saints of Bhakti Movement:
• Maharashtra Dharma:
• Sufism:
• Sanskrit Literature:
• Pali Literature:
• Prakrit Literature:
• Tamil Literature:
• Telugu Literature:
• Malayalam Literature:
• Kannada Literature:
• Odia Literature:
• Assamese Literature:
• Bengali Literature:
• Gujarati Literature:
• Rajasthani Literature:
• Punjabi Literature:
• Marathi Literature:
• Hindi Literature:
• Persian Literature:
• Urdu Literature:
• Indian Handicrafts:
• Indian Universities:
• Personalities Related to Culture:
• Places of Cultural Interest:
• Fairs and Festivals in India:
• Cultural Institutions in India:
• Awards and Honors Associated with Culture:
• The Calendar:
• The Eras:
• Science and Technology in Ancient India:
• UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India:
• Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage:
• The origin of the Earth Early Theories:
• The origin of the Earth Modern Theories – BBT:
• The origin of the Earth Star Formation:
• The origin of the Earth Formation of Planets:
• The origin of the Earth Solar System:
• The Evolution of the Earth Layered Structure (5 layers):
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Lithosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Atmosphere:
• The Evolution of the Earth Evolution of Hydrosphere:
• Geological History of the Earth:
• Earth Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians:
• Earth Motions of the Earth - Rotation, Revolution and their effects:
• Earth Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects:
• Earth Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar:
• Earth Eclipses - Solar, Lunar:
• Origin of Life:
• Geological Time Scale:
• Interior of the Earth Direct Sources :
• Interior of the Earth Indirect Sources (EarthQuake Waves, Volcanoes):
• Interior of the Earth :
• Interior of the Earth Crust:
• Interior of the Earth Mantle:
• Interior of the Earth Core:
• Geology Minerals:
• Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust:
• Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz,:
• Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine:
• Physical Characteristics–Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak:
• Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity:
• Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non-Ferrous:
• Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement:
• Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals):
• Petrology:
• Rocks & landforms:
• Rocks & Soils:
• 3 Family of Rocks:
• Igneous:
• Sedimentary:
• Metamorphic:
• Rock Cycle:
• Earthquakes:
• Waves: P, S, Body, Surface,:
• Shadow Zone:
• Types of Earthquakes:
• Effects:
• Frequency:
• Locating an Epicenter:
• Volcano:
• Types Shield:
• Types Composite:
• Types Caldera:
• Types Flood Basalt:
• Types Mid Ocean Ridge:
• Landforms (intrusive):
• Batholiths:
• Laccoliths:
• Lapoliths:
• Phacoliths:
• Sills:
• Dykes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Earth’s Surface Exogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Endogenic Forces:
• Earth’s Surface Gradation, Degradation & Aggradation:
• Geomorphic Process:
• Endogenic Process:
• Diastrophism:
• Orogenic:
• Epeirogenic:
• Earthquakes:
• Plate movements:
• Volcanism:
• Exogenic Forces:
• Denudation Processes:
• Weathering:
• Mass movements:
• Erosion Transportation & Deposition:
• Distribution of Continents & Oceans:
• Theories:
• Continental Drift Theory:
• Alfred Wegner 1912:
• Pangea, Panthalasa:
• Laurasia, Gondwanaland:
• Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory:
• Jigsaw Fit:
• Rocks of Same age across oceans:
• Tillite:
• Placer Deposits:
• Distribution of Fossils:
• Forces of Drifting:
• Pole Fleeing Force:
• Tidal Force:
• Post Drift Studies:
• Convectional Current Theory:
• Mapping of the Ocean Floor:
• Continents – plate Tectonics:
• Lithospheric Plates:
• Major Plate:
• Minor Plates:
• Plate Boundaries:
• Divergent:
• Convergent:
• Transform:
• Rates of Plate Movements:
• Force of plate movements:
• Indian Plate:
• Movement from 71 million years ago till Today:
• Landforms and their Evolution:
• Causes:
• Geomorphic Processes:
• Agents:
• Geomorphic Agents Erosional or Destructional:
• Geomorphic Agents Depositional or Constructional:
• Agents and their Impacts Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents:
• Winds One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts:
• Winds Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact:
• Winds Erosional landforms:
• Pediments and Pedi plains:
• Playas:
• Deflation Hollows and Caves:
• Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks:
• Depositional Landforms Barchans:
• Depositional Landforms Seif:
• Depositional Landforms Parabolic:
• Depositional Landforms Transverse:
• Depositional Landforms Longitudinal:
• Running Water Humid Regions:
• Running Water Two Components:
• Overland Flow – Sheet:
• Linear Flow – Streams:
• Stages:
• Youth Mature Old:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Valleys:
• Rills:
• Gullies:
• Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary):
• Potholes & Plunge pools:
• Incised or entrenched meanders:
• River Terraces – paired & unpaired:
• Depositional Landforms Alluvial Fans:
• Depositional Landforms Delta:
• Depositional Landforms Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars:
• Depositional Landforms Meanders, Slip off bank,:
• Depositional Landforms Undercut bank:
• Depositional Landforms Oxbow lake:
• Depositional Landforms Braided Channels:
• Ground Water (Karst Topography) :
• Permeable Rocks:
• Percolation:
• Bedding Plains:
• Limestone and Dolomite Regions:
• Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Pools-Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapies, Ridges, Limestone Pavements:
• Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels:
• Depositional landforms Stalactites :
• Depositional landforms Stalagmites:
• Depositional landforms Pillar Columns:
• Glaciers:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cirque of Tarn Lakes:
• Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete:
• Glacial Valleys / Troughs – Fiords:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Glacial Tills:
• Moraines:
• Eskers:
• Outwash Plains:
• Drumlins:
• Waves and Currents:
• High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts:
• Erosional Landforms:
• Cliffs:
• Terraces:
• Caves:
• Stacks:
• Depositional Landforms:
• Beaches and Dunes:
• Bars Barriers Spits:
• Weathering:
• Weather over Earth Materials:
• Factors:
• Geological:
• Climatic:
• Topographic:
• Vegetative:
• Major Processes:
• Chemical:
• Physical or Mechanical:
• Biological:
• Chemical – Forces Chemical Action:
• Solution:
• Carbonation:
• Hydration:
• Oxidation & Reduction:
• Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure:
• Unloading & Expansion:
• Temperature changes and Expansion:
• Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging:
• Salt Weathering:
• Biological Weathering:
• Burrowing:
• Wedging:
• Plant Roots:
• Effects of Weathering:
• Exfoliation (Flaking)– Exfoliation:
• Domes, Tors:
• Significance of Weathering:
• Soil Formation:
• Biomes and Biodiversity:
• Leaching / Enrichment:
• Mass Movements Activating causes:
• Mass Movements Forms of movement – Heave:
• Mass Movements Flow Slide:
• Mass Movements 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides:
• Landforms across the world: Rivers and lakes:
• Landforms across the world: Mountain and Peaks:
• Landforms across the world: Plateaus:
• Composition:
• Gases:
• Water Vapour:
• Dust Particles:
• Structure:
• Exosphere:
• Thermosphere:
• Mesosphere:
• Stratosphere:
• Troposphere:
• Altitude vs Temperature:
• Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature:
• Insolation:
• Aphelion and Perihelion:
• Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth:
• Day Season Year:
• Rotation on Axis, Angle of:
• Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day:
• Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect.:
• Heat Balance:
• Heating and cooling of atmosphere:
• Conduction:
• Convection:
• Advection:
• Terrestrial Radiation:
• Heat Budget of the Planet Earth:
• Macro Budget:
• Albedo:
• Shortwave Radiation:
• Long wave Earth Radiation:
• Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface:
• Temperature:
• Factors controlling T distribution:
• Distribution of T Month of January-July:
• Range of T Month of January-July:
• Inversion of Temperature:
• Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems:
• Atmospheric Pressure:
• Vertical variation of pressure:
• Horizontal distribution of pressure:
• World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure:
• Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the:
• WIND:
• Pressure Gradient Force:
• Frictional Force:
• Coriolis Force:
• Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation):
• General Circulation of the Atmosphere Pattern of Planetary Winds:
• Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating:
• Emergence of Pressure Belts:
• Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun:
• Distribution of continents & Oceans:
• Rotation of the Earth:
• Circulation:
• Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell:
• Seasonal Wind:
• Local Wind:
• Land and Sea Breezes:
• Mountain and Valley winds:
• AIR MASS – fronts:
• ExtraTropical Cyclone:
• Thunderstorms:
• Tornadoes:
• Water in the Atmosphere:
• Water Vapour:
• Precipitation:
• Humidity – Absolute and Relative:
• Saturation – Dew Point:
• Evaporation and Condensation:
• Dew:
• Frost:
• Fog & Mist:
• Clouds:
• Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus:
• High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus:
• Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus:
• Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus:
• Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus:
• Precipitation:
• Rainfall Snowfall Sleet Hail Hailstones:
• Types of Rainfall:
• Conventional:
• Orographic:
• Cyclonic:
• World Distribution of Rainfall:
• World Climate:
• The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate:
• The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical:
• Marine Climates:
• The Savanna or Sudan Climate:
• The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates:
• The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate:
• The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate:
• The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate:
• The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate:
• The Arctic or Polar Climate:
• Water on the Surface of the Earth Hydrological Cycle:
• Component:
• Processes:
• Oceans:
• Oceans Relief of the Ocean floor:
• Oceans 4 divisions of the ocean floor:
• Continental Shelf:
• Continental Slope:
• Deep sea plain:
• Oceanic deep and Trenches:
• Minor relief features:
• Mid oceanic ridges:
• Seamount:
• Submarine canyons:
• Guy outs:
• Atoll:
• Temperature of the Ocean Water:
• Vertical:
• Spatial:
• Factors affecting Temperature Distribution:
• Latitude:
• Unequal distribution of land & Water :
• Prevailing wind:
• Ocean Currents:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution Thermocline:
• Horizontal & Vertical Distribution 3 layers:
• Salinity of the Ocean Water:
• Factors affecting salinity:
• Evaporation and precipitation:
• Fresh water flow from rivers:
• Wing:
• Ocean currents:
• Horizontals distribution of salinity:
• Vertical Distribution of salinity:
• Density of Ocean Waters:
• Movements of ocean Water:
• Factors influencing Movement:
• Temperature:
• Salinity:
• Density:
• Sun Moon winds:
• Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents:
• Waves:
• Motion of waves and water molecules:
• Characteristics Of WAVE:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Crest and Trough:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Height:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Amplitude:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Period:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Length:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Speed:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Frequency:
• Characteristics Of WAVE Tides:
• Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides:
• Tidal currents:
• Types of Tides:
• Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed:
• Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides:
• Importance of Tides:
• Ocean Currents:
• Influenced by 2 forces:
• Primary Force that initiates the movement:
• Heating of solar energy:
• Wind:
• Gravity:
• Coriolis force:
• Secondary force that influence the currents to flow:
• Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots:
• Types of ocean currents Surface currents & Deep-water currents based on Depth:
• Types of ocean currents Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature:
• Major Ocean currents of the World:
• Effects of Ocean Currents:
• Underground water resource:
• Surface water resources:
• Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources by ma:
• Oceanic water resources: Main features of ocean:
• Utilization of oceans by man:
• Water consumption patterns:
• Water pollution:
• Conservation of water resources:
• Techniques of water conservation:
• Soil Characteristics:
• Soil Factors Responsible for Soil Formation:
• Soil Stages of Soil Formation:
• Soil Forming Processes:
• Soil Profiles and Horizons:
• Soil Classification:
• Soil Erosion and Conservation:
• Vegetation resources Types of natural vegetation:
• Vegetation resources Forests:
• Vegetation resources Significance of forests:
• Economic significance, Ecological significance:
• Cultural significance:
• Factors of forest development:
• Extent of forest cover:
• Classification of forests Grasslands:
• Classification of forests Desert vegetation:
• Classification of forests Tundra Vegetation:
• Economic utilization of forests:
• Deforestation in tropical forests:
• Deforestation in temperate forests:
• Deforestation Rate and extent of deforestation:
• Deforestation Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation:
• Deforestation Indirect deforestation:
• Deforestation Underlying causes of deforestation:
• Conservation of forests Forest conservation strategies:
• Conservation of forests Reforestation:
• Conservation of forests Monoculture plantation:
• Conservation of forests Afforestation:
• Types of forestry Social forestry:
• Types of forestry Agroforestry:
• Concept of Human Resources:
• Population Distribution:
• Factors of population distribution Physical Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Socio Cultural Factors:
• Factors of population distribution Demographic Factors:
• World Population Distribution Ecumene:
• World Population Distribution Non-ecumene:
• Continent wise distribution of Population:
• Density of population:
• Pattern of Population density:
• Population Increase (Growth) in the World:
• Causes of Rapid Increase in Population:
• Present Trend:
• Future Projection:
• Determinants of Population Growth:
• Natural Increase:
• Characteristic of Population Age Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Population Pyramids:
• Characteristic of Population Sex Composition:
• Characteristic of Population Literacy:
• Theories of population growth Malthusian theory:
• Theories of population growth Marxian theory:
• Theories of population growth Demographic transition theory:
• Optimum population Over-population:
• Optimum population Under-population:
• Population problems Population problems of developing countries:
• Population problems Population problems of developed countries:
• Population problems Population dilemma of Europe:
• Population Policies: of China, of India:
• Various types of rural settlements:
• Relationship between house types with relief, climate and building materials:
• Basic Feature and Pattern of India’s Urbanization:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Rural Urban Migration:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Emergence of Slums:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Transport:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Waste Disposal:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Electronic Waste:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Urban Poverty:
• Issues of Urbanization in India Real Estate (Regulation & Development) Bill, 2013:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Inclusive Cities/Smart cities:
• Way Forward to Tackle Issues Related to Urbanization Recent government programmes::
• Migration:
• Displacement:
• Importance of the Rehabilitation Policy:
• Urban settlements: types:
• Urbanization process in India.:
• Morphology of urban settlements:
• Town planning and patterns of rural settlement:
• Settlement types of the world:
• Migration: Push factors and pull factors:
• Emigration during colonial, post-independent and post-liberalisation period:
• Internal versus world migration:
• Functional classification of cities:
• Difference between boundaries and frontiers, their classification:
• Rural urban fringe characteristics, advantages, problems:
• National urbanization policy:
• Principles of urban planning:
• Land cover transformation:
• Factors affecting rural settlements, their types and patterns:
• Cities – hierarchical classification, morphological classification:
• Literacy:
• Sex ratio:
• Family Planning:
• Old Age:
• Age Structure:
• Density:
• Population growth:
• Census terminology:
• Land resource:
• Land-use:
• Land capability classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Basic terms related to Agriculture:
• Performance of the agriculture sector:
• Types of farming in India:
• Dry zone farming:
• Organic farming:
• Cropping seasons in India:
• Cropping Pattern in India:
• Agriculture regionalization:
• Infrastructure factors: Seeds;:
• Fertilizers; Irrigation:
• Land use pattern in India:
• Institutional Factors as land reform:
• Horticulture sector in India:
• Agricultural revolutions:
• Agricultural labourers:
• Price Policy for Agriculture:
• Agricultural marketing:
• Agricultural Insurance:
• Agricultural Census:
• Major schemes in agricultural sector:
• National Policy for farmers:
• Impact of climate change on agriculture:
• What is sustainable agriculture?:
• Use of IT in agriculture:
• Agriculture Issues and Challenges:
• Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth:
• Wheat:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Types of cultivation:
• Production patternInternational trade:
• Rice:
• Conditions of growth:
• Varieties:
• Methods of cultivation:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Maize (Corn):
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Barley:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Oats:
• Rye:
• Beverages:
• Tea:
• Condition of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Coffee:
• Types of coffee:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Cocoa:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Tobacco:
• Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• International trade:
• Fibre Crops:
• Cotton:
• Varieties of cotton:
• Cotton Conditions of growth:
• Cotton Production pattern:
• Cotton International trade:
• Jute:
• Jute Conditions of growth:
• Jute Production pattern:
• Jute International trade:
• Jute Substitutes of Jute: Flax, Hemp:
• Jute Abaca, Henequen:
• Jute Sisal:
• Raw Silk:
• Raw Silk Production pattern:
• Raw Silk International trade:
• Natural Rubber:
• Natural Rubber Other sources of rubber:
• Natural Rubber Plantations in South-east Asia:
• Natural Rubber Production pattern:
• Natural Rubber International trade:
• Sugarcane:
• Sugarcane Conditions of growth:
• Sugarcane Production pattern:
• Sugarcane International trade:
• Sugarcane Sugar Beet - Conditions of growth:
• Production pattern:
• Sugar industry:
• Sugar consumption:
• International trade:
• Types of minerals: Metallic minerals:
• Non-metallic mineral:
• Distribution of minerals and mining regions:
• Distribution, production and international trade of Metallic minerals: Ferrous metals: Iron ore:
• Ferro-alloys and non-ferrous:
• Manganese:
• Chromium:
• Nickel:
• Tungsten:
• Antimony:
• Copper:
• Bauxite and Aluminium:
• Zinc; Lead:
• Tin:
• Precious metals: Gold:
• Silver:
• Platinum:
• Mineral chemicals:
• Mineral chemicals Mica:
• Mineral chemicals Potash:
• Mineral chemicals Phosphate:
• Mineral chemicals Nitrates:
• Mineral chemicals Sulphur:
• Conservation of mineral resources:
• Classification of energy:
• Production of conventional energy:
• General trends of energy production and consumption:
• Reserves and sources of energy:
• Coal Nature and origin of coal:
• Constituents and kinds of coal:
• Coal fields and coal production:
• By products of coal:
• Conservation of Coal Petroleum:
• Petroleum:
• Nature and properties of petroleum:
• Petroleum Origin and recovery:
• Petroleum Exploration:
• Petroleum refining:
• Petroleum reserves:
• Producing areas:
• Consumption of petroleum:
• International trade:
• OPEC and its role in oil trade:
• Natural gas: Reserves and Production:
• Hydro-electricity:
• Advantages of hydro-electricity:
• Ideal conditions for generation of hydro-electricity:
• Distribution of potential hydro-power:
• Hydro-electric power generation:
• Atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Atomic: source minerals: Uranium:
• World distribution of uranium:
• Production of uranium:
• Thorium:
• Production of atomic (nuclear) energy:
• Nuclear energy: the energy of future:
• Alternative (non-conventional) sources of energy:
• Solar energy:
• Wind energy:
• Geothermal power:
• Tidal energy:
• Wave energy:
• Biomass energy:
• Alternate Energy Sources:
• Hydrogen as a Fuel for Future or Hydrogen as an Alternative Energy Source:
• Microbial Fuel Cell:
• Energy Context with Respect to Indian Scenario:
• Energy Plantation:
• Energy crisis:
• Industrial development:
• Iron and Steel Industry :
• Process of iron and steel production:
• Location of iron and steel industry:
• Early localization:
• Development of iron manufacture:
• Distribution of iron and steel industry:
• Global steel production:
• International trade:
• Growth potential of the steel industry:
• Textile Industry:
• Cotton textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Recent trends in localization:
• Distribution and production of cotton textiles:
• Woolen textile industry: Location of the industry:
• Silk textile industry: Raw silk manufacture:
• Silk textile manufacturing:
• Synthetic (artificial) silk industry::
• Distribution of man-made fibre and fabrics.:
• Engineering Industries:
• Machine tools and machines: Areas of production:
• Industrial machinery: Textile machinery:
• Other industrial machinery:
• Agricultural machinery:
• Manufacturing of transport equipment:
• Automobile industry:
• Railway car and locomotive industry:
• Shipbuilding:
• Recent trends:
• Aircrafts industry:
• Chemical Industry:
• Classes of chemicals: Branches of chemical industry:
• Heavy chemical industry:
• Rise Production of acids and alk:
• Production of acids and alkalis:
• Rise of chemical industry:
• Fertilizer industry: Nitrogen fertilizers:
• Phosphate fertilizers:
• Potash fertilizers:
• Explosives:
• Glass industry: Production of glass:
• Agro-industries:
• Synthetic rubber industry:
• Pulp and paper industry: Essential:
• conditions for pulp production:
• Production of paper and paper board:
• Newsprint:
• International trade:
• Salient features of pulp and paper industry:
• Cement industry:
• Distribution of cement industry:
• Recent trends: Main global competitors:
• Petroleum refining industry: Localization:
• Site selection of petroleum refineries:
• History of oil refineries:
• World pattern of oil refining:
• Petroleum products:
• Industrial Regions:
• Characteristics of industrial regions:
• Delimitation of an industrial region:
• Principal industrial regions of the world:
• Industrial regions of Anglo America-USA, Canada, Western Europe and Central Britain, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Eastern Europe, Poland, Former USSR:
• Eastern Asia—Japan, China, the ‘Dragons’, India, High tech patterns:
• Features of Indian Society:
• Changes within Indian society and their repercussions:
• Causes of changes:
• Indian society today:
• What is diversity?:
• Types of diversities in India:
• Can diversity be equated with difference?:
• The unity in diversity- a reality or a chimera:
• Some examples:
• Manner of reconciliation:
• Women’s organizations in Indian history:
• Types of women’s organizations:
• Level of penetration:
• Women’s organization – a ray of hope:
• Few case studies:
• Problems faced by women’s organizations:
• Is a larger vocal role possible and ways to achieve the same:
• Role of SHGs, Micro finance Institutions:
• Poverty:
• Concept of development:
• Sen vs Bhagwati model:
• Crisis of development:
• Certain case studies:
• Government’s initiatives and the five year plans:
• Role of civil society organizations:
• What is the meaning of globalization?:
• Kinds of impact of globalization–economic, political, developmental and socio-cultural:
• Is the impact solely positive or negative:
• Meaning and concept of social empowerment:
• Why do we need social empowerment?:
• Specific sections for whom social empowerment is the life blood:
• Social empowerment through the five year plans:
• Government’s initiatives for empowerment:
• Empowerment in reality and India’s experience:
• Other approaches /players/tools for social empowerment and some case studies on the same:
• Meaning and concept of communalism:
• Historicity of communalism:
• Recent incidents:
• Role of third parties in inciting/perpetrating communalism:
• Communalism under the law:
• Can communalism be eradicated from the Indian society completely?:
• Meaning and concept of secularism:
• Secularism through the vantage point of Indian Constitution:
• Comparisons of models Indian & Western:
• Gandhi ji on religion:
• Indian philosophy on secularism:
• Threats on the secular spirit:
• Is the Indian democracy mature enough to handle the gravity of secularism?:
• Meaning and concept of regionalism:
• Theories on regionalism:
• Regionalism in its various manifestations:
• Role of various players:
• Recent incidents causing a wave of flurry:
• Possible ways to tackle the same:
• Constitutional arrangement:
• Women welfare:
• Child welfare:
• SC/ST welfare:
• OBC welfare:
• Minorities welfare:
• Old age welfare:
• Legislations:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Education structure in India:
• Primary, secondary and higher education:
• Initiatives taken by GOI in education:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• Recommendations of committees:
• Future prospects in education sector:
• Skill development:
• Health indicators:
• Health structure in India:
• Private and Public health structure:
• Issues:
• Reforms needed:
• NITI Aayog Report:
• Economic development and human development:
• SDGs and India:
• Poverty definition by different committees:
• Poverty data in India:
• Causes of poverty:
• Poverty and unemployment:
• Poverty and social conflict:
• Impact of LPG on poverty:
• Linkage between poverty and development:
• Rural poverty:
• Urban poverty:
• Feminization of poverty:
• Poverty alleviation measures:
• Problems in implementation of Poverty alleviation programmes:
• Poverty and Hunger:
• Food security programmes and issues:
• Hunger and health:
• Impact of hunger and poverty on economic development of the nation:
• 5th Schedule Areas:
• 6th Schedule Areas:
• Composition of autonomous councils:
• Role and functions of councils:
• Role of Governor with respect to tribal areas:
• Tribal sub plan:
• Controversy related to Poverty Data Estimation:
• Start Up India Scheme:
• Stand up India Scheme:
• National Student Startup Policy:
• National Skill Development Mission:
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana:
• Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana:
• Skill Development Initiative Scheme:
• Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU):
• Atal Innovation Mission:
• Social Security:
• Atal Pension Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana:
• Minorities:
• Nai Roshni Scheme:
• USTAAD Scheme (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development):
• Nai Manzil Scheme:
• Women and Child Development:
• Beti Bachao Beti Padhao:
• Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana:
• Digital Gudda Guddi Board:
• Sabla:
• Ujjawala Scheme:
• Janani Suraksha Yojana:
• Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram:
• SC/ST:
• Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Disability:
• Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan):
• National Health Mission:
• National Ayush Mission:
• Swasthya Rakshan Program:
• Jan Aushadhi Scheme:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• NFHS-4 survey:
• Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat:
• Mid-Day Meal Scheme:
• Ishan Uday:
• GIAN (Global Initiative of Academic Networks):
• Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan:
• SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active - Learning for Young Aspiring Minds):
• Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana:
• Gram Uday Se Bharat Uday Abhiyan:
• Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission:
• Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana:
• Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana:
• Swachch Bharat Abhiyan:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- Gramin:
• Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban:
• Housing for all by 2022:
• Smart Cities Mission:
• Hriday - National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana:
• Amrut (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation):
• Jeevan Praman:
• Digilocker:
• Bharatnet Project (National Optical Fibre Network):
• INSPIRE (Innovation in Science Pursuit:
• for Inspired Research):
• SAKAAR:
• Digital India:
• Namami Gange Project (Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission Project):
• Ganga Gram Yojana:
• Jal Kranti Abhiyan:
• Khelo India:
• One Rank One Pension Scheme:
• PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation):
• Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF):
• Measurement criteria:
• Government initiatives for inclusive growth:
• Basic Amenities: Housing/Drinking Waters/ Sanitations:
• Sustainable Development:
• Rural development and poverty alleviation:
• Review of the Existing Programmes:
• Development Administration:
• Panchayati Raj:
• Agriculture and Rural Development:
• The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act:
• ‘Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2016’:
• ‘Child Labor (Prohibition and Amendment) Bill, 2016’:
• Maternity Benefit Bill, 2016:
• Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act:
• Mental Health Care Bill, 2013:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill with Stringent Penalty:
• HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill-2014 - Amendments:
• Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - SC Widens Ambit:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 with more Benefits:
• Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016:
• The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act:
• Secularism and Anti-Conversion:
• Regionalism: Demand for smaller states:
• Repercussions of making Hindi compulsory:
• Socio-Economic Caste Census, 2011:
• Maternity benefit Amendment Bill:
• Altruistic surrogacy in India:
• Status of widows:
• Acid Attacks:
• SC banned Women Sterilization in India:
• Issue of Sex ratio:
• Issue of Triple Talaq:
• Female Foeticide and Infanticide:
• Reservation for Women in Legislature:
• Women in Combat Duties:
• Women in panchayats:
• Women participation in Economy:
• Challenges faced by Working Women:
• Draft National Policy for Women, 2016:
• Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses:
• Issue of malnutrition in India:
• Amendments proposed in Child Labour Act:
• Plight of street children:
• Adoption Regulations, 2017:
• National Child Policy:
• Out of school children: Issues and steps needed:
• Cradle Baby Scheme:
• Juvenile Justice System:
• Child Marriages in India:
• Draft bill on child abduction:
• National Action Plan for Children, 2016:
• Report on the Protection of Children (Inter-Country Removal and Retention) Bill, 2016:
• Social stigma attached with HIV:
• Issues related to Transgender and Transgender Persons Bill, 2015:
• Euthanasia Issue: An Analysis:
• Right to Privacy and Aadhaar:
• Mental Health Care Bill:
• Anti-Trafficking Bill, 2016:
• Challenge of ageing with dignity:
• Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act:
• Maintenance of Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act:
• Manual Scavenging:
• Mob lynching and Rule of Law:
• Issue related to Undertrials:
• Issues related to Sanitation:
• Sharp reality of displacement:
• Moral policing:
• Income inequality in India:
• Forest Rights Act: Analysis:
• Issue of poor infrastructure in schools:
• No Detention Policy:
• New Policy on Education:
• Lancet Report on Healthcare spending:
• New Health Policy, 2017:
• Technology Adaptation in Health Care:
• Food Fortification:
• Progress Panchayat initiative:
• National Sex Offender Registry:
• Slum Redevelopment:
• Issue of farmer suicide in India:
• Anthropological Survey of India:
• National Commission for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes:
• T.V.S.N. Prasad Report on Pellet Guns:
• Uniform Civil Code:
• Concept of Open Prison:
• Importance of Constitution:
• Historical evolution of the Constitution:
• Constituent Assembly:
• Objectives of the Constitution:
• Salient features of Indian Constitution:
• Unitary features:
• Federal features:
• Parliamentary form of government:
• Presidential form of government:
• Parliamentary vs. Presidential system of government:
• Preamble Basic features:
• Preamble Value premises of constitution:
• Preamble Terminologies as::
• Democratic:
• Sovereign:
• Socialist:
• Secular:
• Republic:
• Justice:
• Equality:
• Liberty:
• Fraternity:
• Integrity:
• Basic constitutional features:
• Methodology of getting citizenship:
• Modes of Losing the Citizenship of India:
• Concept of dual citizenship:
• Citizenship provisions in J&K:
• Special privileges enjoyed by citizens in India:
• Significance of Fundamental Rights:
• Right to Equality:
• Right to Freedom:
• Right against Exploitation:
• Right to Freedom of Religion:
• Cultural and Educational Rights:
• Right to Constitutional Remedies:
• Difference between procedure established by law and due process of law:
• Writs and their uses:
• Restrictive limitations on fundamental rights:
• Basic features:
• Directives:
• Economic and Social DPSP:
• Gandhian DPSP:
• Administrative DPSP:
• DPSP related to International Peace:
• Implementation of DPSP:
• Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy Controversy:
• Features:
• Link of Fundamental Rights & Fundamental Duties:
• Process of law making in India:
• Role of Constitutional and extra constitutional bodies in law making:
• Basic structure: How it evolves?:
• Different types of majorities required in Indian Constitution:
• DPSP Fundamental Rights:
• Doctrines Terminologies:
• Features in American and UK Constitution:
• Checks and balances provisions in Indian Constitution:
• Judicial Review:
• Concept of Separation of Powers:
• It should cover Comparison of USA, UK, India and neighbours:
• State Reorganization Commission (brief):
• Components of Indian territory:
• Process of formation of new states:
• Zonal Councils:
• Union territories:
• Special provisions for states:
• Regulating functions of Government:
• Development functions of government:
• Service providing functions of government:
• Problems in implementation:
• Recommendations for improvement:
• Interrelationship between union, state and local government in implementation of roles:
• Constitutional provisions related to financial devolution:
• Issues of financial devolution:
• Administrative relations:
• Legislative relations:
• Financial relations:
• Misuse of Article 356:
• Issues related to concurrent list:
• Issues related to appointment of Governor:
• Issues related to state formation:
• Poor devolution of finances:
• Reserving bill for Presidential approval:
• Central sponsored schemes and issues:
• Special package for different states:
• Issues between Centre and State after 1990 reforms:
• Foreign policy and Centre and State Relations:
• Importance of President:
• Qualification:
• Election procedure:
• Advantages and disadvantages of single transferable form of voting:
• Presidents’ Term of Office and emoluments:
• Executive Powers:
• Legislative Powers:
• Emergency Powers:
• Financial Powers:
• Miscellaneous powers:
• Judicial powers:
• Presidents Impeachment:
• President as nominal head:
• Issues Ordinance making power:
• Issues Passage of bills:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Pardon power:
• Misuse of emergency provisions Coalition government:
• Office of the Vice-President:
• Functions:
• Appointment of PM:
• Functions of PM:
• Role of PM with respect to CoM:
• Role of PM with respect to President:
• Role of PM with respect to Lok Sabha:
• Role of PM with respect to Political Party:
• Role of PM with respect to Coalition Government:
• Division of CoM:
• Role of CoM:
• Role of Cabinet:
• Responsibilities of the Ministers:
• Qualification:
• Functions:
• Powers with respect to parliament:
• Composition of Rajya Sabha:
• Composition of Lok Sabha:
• Composition of Legislative assembly and Legislative Council:
• Qualification and disqualification of MPs and MLAs:
• Vacation of seats:
• Sessions of parliament:
• Law making procedure:
• Officers of Parliament and state legislature:
• Parliament Proceedings:
• Motions and resolutions in Parliament:
• Powers and Privileges:
• Financial proceedings:
• Comparison of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:
• Comparison of Legislative assembly and council:
• Women reservation in Parliament and issues:
• Lowering of Parliamentary powers:
• Parliamentary committees and their working:
• Judicial activism and Parliament:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Delegated legislation and issues:
• Supreme Court Composition:
• Independence of Supreme Court:
• Jurisdiction of SC:
• Judicial Review:
• High Court Composition:
• High Court Terms and removal:
• High Court Jurisdiction:
• High Court Other powers:
• High Court Lower judiciary:
• High Court Appointment:
• High Court Powers:
• The role of the Supreme Court of India as guardian of the Constitution and protector of Fundamental Rights:
• Judicial Review:
• PIL:
• Judicial Activism:
• Judiciary appointment:
• Collegiums System:
• NJAC Controversy:
• National Court of Appeal:
• Judicial Accountability:
• Issues of corruption in judiciary:
• Functioning of Ministries:
• Central Secretariat:
• Cabinet Secretary:
• Field organizations:
• Reforms needed:
• International methodology:
• Provisions of 73rd AA and 74th AA:
• Role and functions of different tiers:
• Municipal Corporations:
• Municipal Councils:
• Nagar Panchayats:
• The steps taken towards women’s empowerment:
• Role of State Election commission:
• Role of State Finance Commission:
• Smart City Mission & Municipal Governance:
• What is Dispute redressal mechanism?:
• Need of Dispute redressal mechanisms:
• Administrative tribunal and issues:
• Fast Track Courts and issues:
• Gram Nyayalayas and issues:
• Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats and issues:
• Family Courts and issues:
• Lok Adalat and issues:
• NALSA and issues:
• Dispute redressal for Weaker section:
• Arbitration Mechanism:
• International Arbitral Centre:
• Commercial Court:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• Role of CAG in good governance:
• Appointment, term of office, qualification, etc:
• Powers:
• Discretionary powers:
• Ordinance making power:
• Appointment:
• Powers and responsibilities:
• Relationship between the Governor and the Chief Minister:
• Relationship between CoM and the Chief Minister:
• Appointment:
• Functions:
• The composition of Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad:
• Qualifications of the Members of Legislature:
• Powers and Functions of State Legislature:
• Relationship between both the Houses:
• Officers of State Legislature:
• Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members:
• Legislative procedure:
• Governor’s assent to Bills:
• Procedure in Financial Matters/Budget:
• Growth and Development:
• Human Development and Human Capital Formation:
• Equality (interpersonal and interregional) and social justice:
• • Unity and Integrity:
• Trust between state and citizens:
• What is effective implementation? Best outcomes in view of given time, resources and constraints:
• Analysis of different important schemes:
• Good Governance-Role of institutions, bureaucrats and other stakeholders:
• Transparency and accountability:
• Optimum use of resources- Right targeting, plugging leakages and wasteful expenditure, use of available knowledge, research and innovation.:
• Monitoring and evaluation- Outcome budget, zero base budgeting, input output analysis, cost-benefit analysis:
• Setting up institutions and regulatory norms task forces, steering committees and review committees.:
• Difference between Growth and Development:
• Main Constraints of Development:
• Main Stakeholders in Development Process:
• Self Help Groups Meaning:
• Self Help Groups Importance:
• Self Help Groups Objectives:
• Self Help Groups Institutional Structure and Organization:
• Self Help Groups Funding:
• Micro Finance Meaning and importance:
• Micro Finance Objectives:
• Micro Finance Structure and Organization:
• Micro Finance Advantages:
• Micro Finance Micro Finance in India:
• Non-Government Organizations:
• What are NGOs?:
• Difference between Non Government Organizations (NGOs) and International Non Governmental Organizations (INGOs):
• United Nations Criteria for INGO and NGO:
• NGOs and Development Projects:
• NGOs and Community Development:
• NGOs involved in relief and rehabilitation:
• NGOs involved in disaster management:
• NGOs and advocacy:
• Citizen Centric Governance:
• Features of Good Governance:
• Legislative accountability:
• Administrative accountability:
• Judicial accountability:
• Ombudsman:
• Whistleblowers Concept:
• Anti Corruption Machinery:
• Role of Citizens:
• Role of Media:
• Social Audit:
• Systematic Reforms:
• Introduction:
• Applications:
• Models:
• Successes:
• Limitations:
• Future prospects:
• Citizens Charters:
• Models:
• Features:
• CC in India:
• Issues in CC Implementation:
• Reform needed:
• Concept of Civil Services:
• Need for Civil Services:
• Different Role of Civil Services:
• Law making:
• Policy formulation:
• Policy implementation:
• Policy evaluation:
• Civil services as protector of democracy:
• To protect minorities (religious and linguistic) :
• To promote Inclusive and sustainable growth:
• What are pressure groups?:
• Types:
• The significance of pressure groups in India:
• Differentiate between a pressure group and a political party:
• Evaluation of pressure groups role:
• Appointment of CAG (procedure of appointment) - composition of CAG:
• Functions and responsibilities of CAG:
• Powers and privileges of CAG (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment of ECI (procedure of appointment) - composition of ECI:
• Functions and responsibilities of ECI:
• Powers and privileges of ECI (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament):
• Appointment to UPSC (procedure of appointment)- composition of UPSC:
• Functions and responsibilities of UPSC:
• Powers and privileges of UPSC (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• Appointment to Finance commission (procedure of appointment) - composition of Finance commission:
• Functions and responsibilities of Finance commission:
• Powers and privileges of the Finance commission (provided by constitution and different ACTs of Parliament.):
• National Commission for SCs and STs.:
• SEBI:
• CVC:
• CBI:
• Planning Commission:
• NDC:
• PMO:
• Zonal Council:
• TRAI:
• IRDA:
• National Human Rights Commission:
• State Human Rights Commission:
• Central Information Commission:
• State Information Commission:
• National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission:
• Tribunal:
• Medical Council Of India:
• Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority:
• Biodiversity Authority Of India:
• Press Council Of India:
• Forward Markets Commission:
• Inland Waterways Authority Of India RBI:
• Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950:
• Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951:
• Electoral reforms:
• Criminalization of politics:
• Negative or neutral voting:
• State funding of Elections:
• Irregularities in polling:
• Political parties in India:
• Party reforms:
• Problems in the working of parties :
• Casteism and politics:
• Reforms in Party system in India:
• Strengthening of Anti-defection measures:
• Types of pressure groups:
• Role of pressure group in developing countries:
• Functions of pressure groups in India:
• Pressure groups and Methods:
• Pressure groups and Democracy:
• Criticism of pressure groups:
• Background of Relation:
• Political:
• Economic:
• The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation:
• Social:
• Psychological:
• The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi:
• Recommendations to Improve Relations:
• Economy: A Broad Overview:
• India, Bhutan and China: issues:
• The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister:
• A Long History of Bilateral Relations:
• The India-Afghanistan Development Partnership:
• Strategic factors undergirding India’s Partnership with Afghanistan:
• Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal:
• Options for India:
• Development Partnership:
• India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy:
• Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis:
• Geostrategic Importance of Maldives:
• Development Cooperation:
• Security Risks:
• Commercial Relations:
• Developmental Cooperation:
• Fishermen Issue:
• Relation through ages:
• Recent change in policy:
• China Role:
• Major Crisis:
• Water Dispute:
• Current Internal Scenario:
• Impact on India:
• Developments in Last One Year:
• Economic Relation:
• China India Water Related Issue:
• “String of Pearls Strategy”:
• China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India:
• Main Disputes:
• Resources as a Driver of Competition:
• Attempts for Resolution:
• India and South China Dispute:
• The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift:
• South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust:
• Piracy off the coast of Somalia:
• Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism:
• Energy Routes:
• Fisheries and Livelihood Issues:
• Environmental Security:
• Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace:
• India and Asian Nations relations:
• India-Turkmenistan:
• India-Kazakhstan:
• India Tajikistan:
• China And Central Asia:
• International North-South Transport Corridor:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organisation:
• India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation:
• Deal on Uranium Supply:
• Visit:
• Political and economic relation:
• Oil Economic Relation:
• Iran Nuclear Deal and India:
• India Iran Relations:
• US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran:
• Israel and Palestine:
• India – Israel Relations:
• Areas of Cooperation:
• Challenges in Relations:
• Zones of Activity:
• Regional Groupings:
• Geopolitics of Asia Pacific:
• Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations:
• India-ASEAN Security Co-operation:
• Economy Centric Relationship:
• Contemporary Perspective:
• India South Korea Relations:
• Economic Partnership in Recent Years:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Strategic Cooperation:
• Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation:
• China’s Response:
• India’s Response:
• Historical Connections:
• Gandhi’s Role:
• Nehru’s Role:
• Strengthening of Ties:
• South-south Engagement:
• Current Dynamics:
• Economic Cooperation:
• Human resources development and capacity building:
• Energy Cooperation:
• Military Security Co-operation:
• Trade Policy under Modi:
• Afro-Indian Trade:
• Indian investment in Africa:
• African investment in India:
• Development cooperation and assistance:
• Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora:
• Economic Relationship:
• Issue of Nuclear Cooperation:
• India-Russia Bilateral Relationship:
• Shanghai Cooperation Organization:
• Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia:
• Strategic Partnership:
• Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France:
• Indian-Germany Economic Relations:
• Ties in Current Context:
• Scotland’s Referendum:
• India & BREXIT:
• Area of Cooperation: Strategic Consultations:
• Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security:
• Area of Cooperation : Trade and Economic:
• Area of Cooperation : Energy and Climate Change:
• Area of Cooperation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space:
• Area of Cooperation : People to People Ties:
• Area of Cooperation : Defence Cooperation:
• Intellectual Property Issues:
• India and International Organisations:
• Representation in the WTO and Economic Groupings:
• How the WTO takes Decisions:
• The WTO Secretariat and Budget:
• How Countries Join the WTO:
• Assisting Developing and Transition Economies:
• Specialized Help for Export Promotion:
• The WTO’s Part in Global Economic Policy-making:
• Nairobi Package adopted at 10th WTO Ministerial Conference:
• WTO reports rise in protectionism:
• International Monetary Fund (IMF):
• India gets more Voting Rights in IMF Reforms:
• The fourth Nuclear Security Summit: 2016:
• Threats of Nuclear Terrorism:
• Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
• Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):
• Recent Support for NSG Membership for India:
• Why is India seeking to become a member of NSG?:
• Why are certain countries opposing India’s entry into NSG?:
• Argument in favour for India Joining NSG:
• Economic Environment in BRICS Countries:
• Last BRICS Summit in Goa, India:
• BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit:
• Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters:
• IBSA Potential:
• Need for Revitalizing IBSA:
• India’s Policy Options:
• Technological Collaboration:
• Indo-Pak Conflict:
• Problem of Resource Development:
• Prospects For SAARC:
• What is NAM?:
• Relevance in present era:
• Singapore:
• Vietnam:
• Indonesia:
• India ASEAN FTA in Service:
• Indian Economy in Pre-independence Period:
• Economy on Eve of Independence:
• Challenges:
• Features:
• Post-Independence India:
• Issues:
• Agriculture and its Development so far:
• Industry:
• Services:
• Phases of Economic Development in India:
• Nehruvian Socialist Economy:
• Economic Reforms:
• Planning:
• Objectives:
• Technical Details:
• Planning History:
• Analysis of each plan:
• Types of resources: Physical capital and finance capital:
• Need for resource mobilization- Police State and Democratic Welfare State:
• Sources of resource mobilization: Public Sector and Private Sector:
• Savings and investment over the five year plan:
• Budgetary resources: Tax and Non tax:
• Role of Public Debt in resource mobilization and effects: Market borrowing, loans, grants, etc.:
• Role of fiscal and monetary policies in resource mobilization:
• Role of foreign investment in resource mobilization, desirability and consequences:
• Multilateral agencies and resource mobilization:
• Meaning and concept of Inclusion:
• India’s experience:
• Social sector initiatives and inclusion process:
• Ground reality and working of flagship schemes:
• India’s growth story in this context:
• Why is India's growth not inclusive?:
• Rural economy based growth:
• Need for Sustainable agriculture, food security and resilience for growth.:
• Public distribution schemes: Way to inclusive growth.:
• Financial inclusion as an instrument of inclusive growth.:
• Poverty Alleviation and Employment Generation as a strategy for inclusive growth:
• Social sector development as an instrument for inclusive growth.:
• Public private partnership for inclusive growth:
• Industrial Integration for inclusive growth:
• Sectoral and regional diversification as a tool for inclusive growth.:
• Budget Terminology:
• Types of Budget:
• Features of outcome budgeting:
• Merger of Railway and General Budget:
• Benefits of budgeting:
• Flaws in budgeting process:
• Budget analysis:
• Measures of Investment:
• Capital and Investment:
• Factors affecting Investment:
• Classification of Investment:
• FDI:
• Angel Investors and Start-ups:
• M&A:
• Investment Models:
• Role of State:
• PPP (Public-Private Partnership):
• Savings and Investment Trends:
• Fiscal Policy in India:
• Important Budgetary Terms and Fiscal Concept:
• Government Revenues & Spending:
• Deficits:
• Balance Sheet:
• Taxation Meaning:
• Principles of Taxation:
• Objectives of Taxation:
• Taxation for Mobilization of Resources:
• Tax System in India:
• Subsidies:
• Tax Reforms:
• GST:
• Instruments of Monetary Policy:
• Monetary policy in pre-reform Era (1948 – 1991):
• Monetary Policy in Post-Reform Era (Since – 1991):
• Urjit Patel Committee Report:
• Monetary Policy Committee and Inflation Targeting:
• Money Market in India:
• Capital Market in India:
• Indian Capital Market Regulatory Framework:
• Primary Market Reforms in India:
• Secondary Market Reforms in India:
• Indian Banking System:
• Functions of Commercial Banks:
• Challenges Faced by Commercial Banks in India:
• Nationalization of Banks in India:
• Banking Reforms in India:
• New Bank Licence Criteria:
• Small Finance Banks and Payment Banks Criteria:
• Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC):
• Terminologies/Concepts Related to Banking in India:
• Financial Inclusion:
• NPAs:
• Bills related to Banking:
• Land-use:
• Land Capability Classification:
• Causes of Land Degradation:
• Impact of Land Degradation:
• Steps taken by GOI:
• Sustainable Land Management:
• Objectives of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Land Reforms in India:
• Progress of Ceiling Legislation:
• NITI Aayog Report on Land Leasing:
• Features of Agricultural Finance:
• Criteria for Agricultural Credit:
• Need for Agricultural Finance:
• Sources of Agricultural Finance:
• Problems of Agricultural Finance:
• Measures taken to improve credit flow to agriculture:
• Co-operative Credit Societies in India:
• Commercial Bank:
• Lead Bank Scheme:
• Multi Agency Approach:
• Regional Rural Banks:
• National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD):
• Reserve Bank of India:
• Kisan Credit Card Scheme:
• Self Help Group (SHG):
• Bank Linkage Programme:
• Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF):
• Government Policy For Agricultural Credit:
• Farmers Service Societies (FSS):
• Historical Background:
• Issues Related to Crop Insurance:
• Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana:
• Comparison with Earlier Crop Insurance Schemes:
• Challenges:
• Process of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Structure of Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Importance of Proper Agriculture Marketing:
• Government Measures to Improve Agricultural Marketing in India:
• Analysis of APMC Act:
• Objectives of Subsidies:
• Transfer of resources from gainers from economic policies to losers from economic policies:
• Farm Subsidies:
• Fertiliser Subsidies:
• Subsidy on Power:
• Subsidy on Irrigation:
• Rationale of Minimum Support Price:
• Impact of MSP on inflation:
• Public Distribution System: Objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping, evolution from universal PDS to targeted PDS, Targeted PDS, a critical analysis of cost and benefit of PDS:
• Buffer Stock policy and government’s intervention in food market to keep prices under reasonable limits to help consumers:
• Food Security bill, questions of resource mobilization for the FSB, criticism of the FSB:
• Important questions on the future of subsidies:
• Green Revolution:
• White Revolution – Operation Flood:
• Yellow Revolution:
• Blue Revolution:
• Golden Fiber Revolution: Jute:
• Processed Foods Scenario with respect to Specific Sectors:
• Policy Initiatives:
• Infrastructure Development in Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector FDI Policy in Food Processing:
• Notable Trends in the Indian Food Processing Sector:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector Strategies Adopted in Budget:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector New foreign and domestic investment:
• Issues in Food Processing Sector-specific government policies:
• Mahalanobis strategy and India’s industrial policy-Discussing Industrial policy resolution 1948 and 1956 critically:
• New Economic Policy and Industrial policy under the policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization:
• Phases of Industrial development:
• Roles of private sector and public sector, Investment in the industrial sector, employment, productivity, profit etc.:
• Strategies for disinvestment and privatization:
• Role of Small, Medium and Micro enterprises, Government Policy, main problems, effects of globalization:
• New Manufacturing Policy:
• Industrial disbursal and Industrial corridors:
• SEZs- Main issues like land use, relocation of same industries that exist, exports earnings vs loss of tax income:
• Industrial sickness, institutional mechanism to support the sick industries, exit policy issues:
• Main constraints in the industrial development of India:
• Effects of globalization on industries, Sub-prime crisis and sovereign debt crisis on Industry in India:
• Industrial Finance in India: Role of development banking, commercial banking, venture capital, angel capital in industrialization and promotion of entrepreneurship:
• Make in India achievements:
• Transport:
• Importance and development of transport:
• Means of Transport:
• Transport costs and economic distance:
• Operating costs in transport:
• Relative importance of means of transport: Railways, Roads, Pipeline, Oceans, Air transport:
• Profits and freight rates:
• Government’s transport policy:
• Transport patterns in the world::
• Oceanic transport Ocean transport routes:
• Inland waterways:
• Main regions of inland waterways:
• Railways: Factors affecting the railroads:
• Distribution of railroads in the world:
• Factors influencing air transport:
• Pipeline Transport:
• Petroleum (oil) Pipelines:
• Gas Pipelines:
• Transport costs and specialization:
• Transport and trade in the modern era:
• Transport costs and scale economies:
• Falling transport costs increase trade between neighbours:
• Failing transport costs lead to concentration within countries:
• Negative externalities of transport:
• Important issues Ownership and financing:
• Important issues Pricing of Public utilities:
• Important issues Infrastructure as avenues for investment:
• Important issues Project delays-reasons and measures to overcome:
• Important issues Public Private Partnership and related issues:
• Important issues Operation and Maintenance of roads, railways, irrigation and power projects-Main problems and solutions:
• Important issues Impact of Infrastructure-Economic impacts, impact on social development, environmental impacts :
• Cell Structure:
• Membranes:
• Cell-Cell Interactions:
• Energy and Metabolism:
• Respiration:
• Photosynthesis:
• How Cells Divide:
• Sexual Reproduction:
• Inheritance:
• DNA, The Genetic Material:
• Gene Expression:
• Gene Regulation:
• Mutation:
• Recombinant DNA Technology:
• Classification and Domains of Life:
• General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses:
• Prokaryotes:
• Eukaryotes:
• Protists:
• Plants:
• Fungi:
• Animals:
• Evolution of Life:
• Animal Evolution:
• Human Evolution:
• Epithelial tissue:
• Connective tissue:
• Muscle tissue:
• Beneficial animals: Corals - Earthworm -Vermiculture - Beneficial insects Prawns - Lobsters - Crabs – Pearl oysters - Fishes - Guano - Aquarium Vivarium:
• Harmful animals: Disease causing organisms Vectors - Poisonous organisms – Fouling organisms - Pests.:
• Hypothalamus:
• Pineal body (epiphysis):
• Pituitary gland (hypophysis):
• Thyroid:
• Adrenal glands:
• Reproductive glands:
• External and Internal Respiration:
• Respiratory system in Plants:
• Respiratory System in Insects:
• Respiratory System in Humans and Animals:
• Transport system in a Cell:
• Transport System in Plants:
• Transport System in Animals:
• Blood Vascular System:
• The Lymphatic System:
• Bone and Skeleton System (Osteology):
• Ligaments (Syndesmology):
• Muscular System (Myology):
• Vertebrates:
• Asexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Asexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Plants:
• Sexual Reproduction in Animals:
• Sexual Reproduction in Humans:
• Excretory products:
• Excretion in plants:
• Excretion in Animals:
• Osmoregulation, ADH and formation of Urine in Animals:
• Physiological and Behavioural Adjustments:
• Classification by Source of Energy and Carbon:
• Plant Nutrition:
• Animal Nutrition:
• Human Diet:
• The Digestive System:
• Industrial Genetics:
• Protoplast and cell fusion technologies:
• Genetic Engineering:
• DNA sequencing:
• Nucleic acid probes:
• Genomics and proteomics:
• Antisense and RNA interface:
• Potential laboratory biohazards of genetic engineering:
• Bioprocess/fermentation technology:
• Global warming and the significance of fossils fuels:
• Photosynthesis: the ultimate energy source:
• Biofuels from biomass:
• Bioethanol from biomass:
• Biodiesel:
• Methane:
• Hydrogen:
• Microbial Ecology Environmental Biotechnology:
• Waste water and sewage treatment:
• Landfilling technologies:
• Composting:
• Bioremediation:
• Detect and monitoring of pollutants:
• Microbes and the geological environment:
• Environmental sustainability and clean technology:
• Plant biotechnology:
• Forest Biotechnology:
• Genetic manipulation and transgenic animals:
• Genetically engineered hormone and vaccines:
• Animal organs for human patients:
• Genetically modified insects:
• Food and beverage fermentations:
• Microorganisms as food:
• Enzymes and food processing:
• Amino acids, vitamins and sweeteners:
• Organic acids and polysaccharides:
• Public acceptance and safety of new biotechnology foods:
• Biotechnology and medicine:
• Pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals:
• Antibiotics:
• Vaccines and monoclonal antibodies:
• Biopharmaceuticals/therapeutic proteins:
• Pharmacogenetics:
• Molecular biology and human disease:
• Diagnostics in developing countries:
• Gene Therapy:
• Systems biology and medicine:
• Stem cell biotechnology:
• Patent protection Trade secrets:
• Plant breeders’ rights:
• Diseases in News:
• India Declared Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, H5N1 and Yaws Free:
• IPV Injection:
• Mission Indradhanush:
• New TB Drug Regimen:
• E-Cigarettes:
• Digital Biopiracy:
• Kendrapara Sheep:
• DNA Tagging of Convicts:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• Genetically Modified Mosquito:
• Designer Babies’ OR Three Parents Babies:
• U.K. Grants Gene Editing Licence:
• National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020:
• Types of orbits:
• Launch Vehicle:
• Satellite communication in India:
• INSAT Satellite application:
• Remote sensing applications:
• Cryogenic rockets:
• Global Positioning System:
• Galileo:
• GLONASS:
• IRNSS:
• GAGAN:
• Chandrayaan – I & II:
• Mars Orbiter Mission:
• Space Organisations:
• Space race/Space junk:
• Recent updates:
• South Asia Satellite: Significance:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Solar Mission- ADITYA:
• Gravitational Waves:
• FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope):
• Spitzer Space Telescope:
• Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope:
• Chandra X-ray Observatory:
• James Webb Space Telescope:
• ARIES/Devasthal Telescope:
• Multi Application Solar Telescope:
• Thirty Metre Telescope:
• Resourcesat- 2A:
• ASTROSAT:
• Sunspot:
• Magnetars:
• Neutron stars:
• Air-breathing propulsion system:
• Space Junk:
• Graveyard Orbit:
• India, NASA join hands for:
• Astrobiology Mission:
• Neutrino Observatory:
• Indian Space Vision-2025:
• Missile system and classification:
• On the basis of type:
• On the basis of launch vehicle:
• On the basis of Range:
• On the basis of propulsion system:
• India’s Missile System Agni:
• India’s Missile System Prithvi:
• India’s Missile System Trishul:
• India’s Missile System Nag:
• India’s Missile System Dhanush:
• India’s Missile System Astra:
• India’s Missile System Prahaar:
• BrahMos Missile System:
• Indian Submarines and Naval Ships:
• Light Combat Aircraft:
• Unmanned Aerial Vehicle:
• Stealth technology:
• Chemical Weapon:
• Biological Weapon:
• Types of nuclear reactions:
• Nuclear Power Reactor:
• N-Power Policy of India:
• Advantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy:
• Non-energy applications of Nuclear energy:
• Impact of Radiation:
• Issue of Radioactive Waste:
• Institutions involved in Nuclear energy Development, AERB:
• Safety standards in Nuclear Power plants:
• Nuclear & Radiological Disasters:
• Computers:
• Generation of computers:
• Computer terminologies:
• Supercomputer and its applications:
• Information technology:
• Components of IT:
• IT enabled services:
• Application of IT:
• Display technologies:
• Cathode ray:
• LCD:
• LED:
• Plasma Monitors:
• OLED:
• Telecommunications:
• Mobile generations:
• Smartphone:
• Important concepts:
• Government initiatives:
• Digital India Initiative:
• MeghRaj:
• Code Free for India:
• E-Kranti:
• Bharat Net project:
• Bharat QR:
• Contemporary debates:
• Net Neutrality:
• Internet of Things:
• Big Data Initiative and Privacy:
• Cyber crime and security:
• Cyber Swachhta Kendra:
• BharatQR:
• Digital Transaction Methodologies:
• Smart Credit Cards:
• Bharat Net Project:
• Wi-fi Technology:
• BlockChain Technology and Bitcoins:
• Digital Terrestrial Television:
• Transmission System:
• Disaster Management Network:
• Param Ishan:
• Internet of Things:
• What is Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?:
• Origination of Nanoscience and Technology:
• Basics of Nanoscience:
• Nanomaterials:
• Applications of nanotechnology:
• Nano medicine:
• Semiconductors and computing:
• Food:
• Textiles:
• Sustainable energy:
• Environment:
• Transport:
• Space:
• Agriculture:
• Adverse Health and Environmental:
• Impacts of Nanotechnology:
• Social and Ethical Impacts::
• Nano-science and nano-technology in India:
• What is Robotics?:
• Machine vs Computer vs Robots:
• Parts of a Robot:
• Controller:
• Manipulator: